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210 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The human brain contains
100 to 150 billion neurons
Information is transmitted between cells across tiny gaps called
Synapses
An enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone.
5α-reductase
A protein that, along with myosin, mediates the contraction of muscle fibers.
Actin
Also called nerve impulse. The propagated electrical message of a neuron that travels along the axon to the presynaptic axon terminals.
action potential
The outer rind of the adrenal gland. Each of the three cellular layers of the adrenal cortex produces different hormones.
adrenal cortex
An endocrine gland atop the kidney.
Adrenal gland
The inner core of the adrenal gland. The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Adrenal medulla
A tropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the production and release of hormones of the adrenal cortex.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
The creation of new neurons in the brain of an adult.
adult neurogenesis
A disorder of mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder.
affective disorder
In reference to an axon, carrying nerve impulses from a sensory organ to the central nervous system, or from one region to another region of interest.
afferent
The positive or negative change in membrane potential that may follow an action potential.
afterpotential
The inability to recognize objects, despite being able to describe them in terms of form and color; may occur after localized brain damage.
agnosia
A molecule, usually a drug, that binds a receptor molecule and initiates a response like that of another molecule, usually a neurotransmitter.
agonist
The inability to write.
agraphia
A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that induces the kidneys to conserve sodium ions.
aldosterone
The fact that the amplitude of the action potential is independent of the magnitude of the stimulus.
all-or-none property
The process of focusing by the ciliary muscles and the lens to form a sharp image on the retina.
accommodation
Specialized retinal cells that contact both the bipolar cells and the ganglion cells, and are especially significant in inhibitory interactions within the retina.
amacrine cells
Reduced visual acuity that is not caused by optical or retinal impairments.
amblyopia
An impairment in the direction, extent, and rate of muscular movement.
ataxia
A class of interneurons of the retina that receive information from rods and cones and pass the information to retinal ganglion cells.
bipolar cells
The portion of the visual field from which light falls on the optic disc. Because there are no receptors in this region, light striking it cannot be seen.
blind spot
One of three basic dimensions of light perception, varying from dark to light.
brightness
One of the muscles that controls the shape of the lens inside the eye, focusing an image on the retina.
ciliary muscle
A cell in the visual cortex that responds best to a bar of a particular size and orientation anywhere within a particular area of the visual field.
complex cortical cell
A class of photoreceptor cells in the retina that are responsible for color vision.
cones
The transparent outer layer of the eye, whose curvature is fixed. It bends light rays and is primarily responsible for forming the image on the retina.
cornea
One of the muscles attached to the eyeball that control its position and movements.
extraocular muscle
Visual cortex outside of the primary visual (striate) cortex.
extrastriate cortex
The central portion of the retina, packed with the most photoreceptors and therefore the center of our gaze.
fovea
A class of cells in the retina whose axons form the optic nerve.
ganglion cells
Specialized retinal cells that contact both the receptor cells and the bipolar cells.
horizontal cells
One of three basic dimensions of light perception, varying around the color circle through blue, green, yellow, orange, and red.
hue
The part of the thalamus that receives information from the optic tract and sends it to visual areas in the occipital cortex.
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
A structure in the eye that helps focus an image on the retina.
lens
Also called visual cortex. The cortex of the occipital lobe of the brain.
occipital cortex
A region of cortex in which one eye or the other provides a greater degree of synaptic input.
ocular dominance column
A retinal ganglion cell that is activated when light is presented to the periphery, rather than the center, of the cell’s receptive field.
off-center ganglion cell
The point at which the two optic nerves meet.
optic chiasm
Cranial nerve II; the collection of ganglion cell axons that extend from the retina to the optic chiasm.
optic nerve
Axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus that terminate in the primary visual areas of the occipital cortex.
optic radiation
The axons of retinal ganglion cells after they have passed the optic chiasm; most terminate in the lateral geniculate nucleus.
optic tract
Also called adrenal steroids. A class of steroid hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex.
adrenocorticoids
A tropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the production and release of hormones of the adrenal cortex.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that induces the kidneys to conserve sodium ions.
aldosterone
Also called monoamine hormones. A class of hormones, each composed of a single amino acid that has been modified into a related molecule, such as melatonin or epinephrine.
amine hormones
The chief sex hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex.
androstenedione
The front division of the pituitary gland; secretes tropic hormones.
anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis
Also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A peptide hormone from the posterior pituitary that promotes water conservation.
arginine vasopressin (AVP) or vasopressin
A glucocorticoid stress hormone of the adrenal cortex.
cortisol
A second messenger activated in target cells in response to synaptic or hormonal stimulation.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP)
A compound that acts both as a hormone (secreted by the adrenal medulla under the control of the sympathetic nervous system) and as a synaptic transmitter.
epinephrine or adrenaline
A gonadotropin, named for its actions on ovarian follicles.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
A class of steroid hormones, released by the adrenal cortex, that affect carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation.
glucocorticoids
A hypothalamic peptide hormone that reduces gonadotropin secretion by inhibiting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH)
A gonadotropin, named for its stimulatory effects on the ovarian corpora lutea.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
An amine hormone that is released by the pineal gland.
melatonin
The inability to recognize objects, despite being able to describe them in terms of form and color; may occur after localized brain damage.
agnosia
A brain region in which strokes can lead to word blindness.
angular gyrus
The inability to name persons or objects readily.
anomia
An impairment in language understanding and/or production that is caused by brain injury.
aphasia
A tract connecting Wernicke’s speech area to Broca’s speech area.
arcuate fasciculus
The inability to recognize objects by touching and feeling them.
astereognosis
A region of the frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in the production of speech.
Broca’s area
Also called dementia pugilistica or punch-drunk. The dementia that develops in boxers; it is especially prominent in successful boxers because they participate in more bouts.
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
An impairment in the repetition of words and sentences.
conduction aphasia
The final stage of birdsong formation, in which fully formed adult song is achieved.
crystallization
A reading disorder attributed to brain impairment. Acquired dyslexia occurs as a result of injury or disease. Developmental dyslexia is associated with brain abnormalities present from birth.
dyslexia
A language impairment characterized by fluent, meaningless speech and little language comprehension; related to damage in Wernicke’s area.
fluent aphasia or Wernicke's aphasia
Weakness of one side of the body.
hemiparesis
Partial paralysis involving one side of the body.
hemiplegia
Talking with considerable effort, short sentences, and the absence of the usual melodic character of conversational speech.
nonfluent speech
A glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist AMPA.
AMPA receptor
The inability to form new memories beginning with the onset of a disorder.
anterograde amnesia
A type of learning in which an association is formed between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response; includes both classical and instrumental conditioning.
associative learning
A protein that is activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) so that it now binds the promoter region of several genes involved in neural plasticity.
cAMP responsive element–binding protein (CREB)
A type of associative learning in which an originally neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus, or CS)—through pairing with another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus, or US) that elicits a particular response—acquires the power to elicit that response when presented alone. A response elicited by the US is called an unconditioned response (UR); a response elicited by the CS alone is called a conditioned response (CR).
classical conditioning
To fill in a gap in memory with a falsification; often seen in Korsakoff’s syndrome.
confabulate
A strip of gray matter in the hippocampal formation.
dentate gyrus
A stage of memory formation in which the information entering sensory channels is passed into short-term memory.
encoding
A form of nonassociative learning in which an organism becomes less responsive following repeated presentations of a stimulus.
habituation
A synapse that is strengthened when it successfully drives the postsynaptic cell.
Hebbian synapse
A medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory.
hippocampus
A very brief type of memory that stores the sensory impression of a scene.
iconic memory
A memory disorder, related to a thiamine deficiency, that is generally associated with chronic alcoholism.
Korsakoff’s syndrome
A stable and enduring increase in the effectiveness of synapses following repeated strong stimulation.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment.
neuroplasticity or neural plasticity
A glutamate receptor that also binds the glutamate agonist NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), and that is both ligand-gated and voltage sensitive.
NMDA receptor
A patient who, because of damage to medial temporal lobe structures, was unable to encode new declarative memories. Upon his death we learned his name was Henry Molaison.
patient H.M.
A neuron within the hippocampus that selectively fires when the animal is in a particular location.
place cell
Difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia.
retrograde amnesia
A neurotransmitter produced and released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons by motoneurons, and by neurons throughout the brain.
acetylcholine (ACh)
In the context of neural transmission, a neuromodulator that alters synaptic activity.
adenosine
A naturally occurring steroid that modulates GABA receptor activity in much the same way that benzodiazepine anxiolytics do.
allopregnanolone
A molecule that resembles the structure of the catecholamine transmitters and enhances their activity.
amphetamine
A molecule, usually a drug, that interferes with or prevents the action of a transmitter.
antagonist
A class of substances that are used to combat anxiety.
anxiolytics
A class of antianxiety drugs that bind to sites on GABAA receptors.
benzodiazepine agonists
The mechanisms that make the movement of substances from blood vessels into brain cells more difficult than exchanges in other body organs, thus affording the brain greater protection from exposure to some substances found in the blood.
blood-brain barrier
A class of monoamines that serve as neurotransmitters, including dopamine and norepinephrine.
catecholamines
Referring to cells that use acetylcholine as their synaptic transmitter.
cholinergic
A substance that directly competes with the endogenous ligand for the same binding site on a receptor molecule.
competitive ligand
A monoamine transmitter found in the midbrain—especially the substantia nigra—and basal forebrain.
dopamine (DA)
A compensatory decrease in receptor availability at the synapses of a neuron.
down-regulation
One of three kinds of endogenous opioids.
dynorphins
Produced inside the body.
endogenous
One of three kinds of endogenous opioids.
endorphins
The property by which neurons die when overstimulated, as with large amounts of glutamate.
excitotoxicity
Arising from outside the body.
exogenous
A widely distributed amino acid transmitter, and the main inhibitory transmitter in the mammalian nervous system.
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
A class of monoamines that serve as neurotransmitters, including serotonin and melatonin.
indoleamines
A region of cortex lying below the surface, within the lateral sulcus, of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes.
insula
A receptor protein that includes an ion channel that is opened when the receptor is bound by an agonist.
ionotropic receptor
A substance that binds to receptor molecules, such as those at the surface of the cell.
ligand
Literally, “blue spot.” A small nucleus in the brainstem whose neurons produce norepinephrine and modulate large areas of the forebrain.
locus coeruleus
A set of dopaminergic axons arising in the midbrain and innervating the limbic system and cortex.
mesolimbocortical pathway
A set of dopaminergic axons arising from the midbrain and innervating the basal ganglia, including those from the substantia nigra to the striatum.
mesostriatal pathway
A substance that influences the activity of synaptic transmitters.
neuromodulator
Referring to cholinergic receptors that respond to nicotine as well as to acetylcholine.
nicotinic
A drug that affects a transmitter receptor while binding at a site other than that bound by the endogenous ligand.
noncompetitive ligand
Referring to systems using norepinephrine (noradrenaline) as a transmitter.
noradrenergic
A region of the forebrain that receives dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area.
nucleus accumbens
A string of nuclei in the midline of the midbrain and brainstem that contain most of the serotonergic neurons of the brain.
raphe nuclei
Literally, “black spot.” A group of pigmented neurons in the midbrain that provides dopaminergic projections to areas of the forebrain, especially the basal ganglia.
substantia nigra
A portion of the midbrain that projects dopaminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens.
ventral tegmental area (VTA)
A brief period of complete insensitivity to stimuli.
absolute refractory phase
The propagated electrical message of a neuron that travels along the axon to the presynaptic axon terminals.
action potential
A toxin, produced by poison arrow frogs, that selectively interferes with Na+ channels.
batrachotoxin
Also called evoked potential. Averaged EEG recordings measuring brain responses to repeated presentations of a stimulus. Components of the ERP tend to be reliable because the background noise of the cortex has been averaged out.
event-related potential (ERP)
The process by which released synaptic transmitter molecules are taken up and reused by the presynaptic neuron, thus stopping synaptic activity.
reuptake
A period of reduced sensitivity during which only strong stimulation produces an action potential.
relative refractory phase
The analysis of a complex pattern into the sum of sine waves.
Fourier analysis
Nuclei in the thalamus that receive input from the inferior colliculi and send output to the auditory cortex.
medial geniculate nuclei
A structure in the inner ear that lies on the basilar membrane of the cochlea and contains the hair cells and terminations of the auditory nerve.
organ of Corti
A theory of frequency discrimination stating that pitch perception depends on the place of maximal displacement of the basilar membrane produced by a sound.
place theory
Brainstem nuclei that receive information from the vestibular organs through cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve).
vestibular nuclei
Cranial nerve VIII, which runs from the cochlea to the brainstem auditory nuclei.
vestibulocochlear nerve
A collection of specialized receptor cells, near to but separate from the olfactory epithelium, that detect pheromones and send electrical signals to the accessory olfactory bulb in the brain.
vomeronasal organ (VNO)
Also called tympanic canal. One of three principal canals running along the length of the cochlea.
scala tympani
The propensity of an animal that has appeared sexually satiated with a present partner to resume sexual activity when provided with a novel partner.
Coolidge effect
The 5α-reduced metabolite of testosterone; a potent androgen that is principally responsible for the masculinization of the external genitalia in mammalian sexual differentiation.
dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
A female receptive posture in quadrupeds in which the hindquarter is raised and the tail is turned to one side, facilitating intromission by the male.
lordosis
A portion of the amygdala that receives olfactory and pheromonal information.
medial amygdala
A region of the brainstem reticular formation implicated in sleep and modulation of spinal reflexes.
paragigantocellular nucleus (PGN)
A hypothalamic region involved in eating and sexual behaviors.
ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
A collection of specialized receptor cells, near to but separate from the olfactory epithelium, that detect pheromones and send electrical signals to the accessory olfactory bulb in the brain.
vomeronasal organ (VNO)
A mineralocorticoid hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that promotes conservation of sodium by the kidneys.
aldosterone
An arc-shaped hypothalamic nucleus implicated in appetite control.
arcuate nucleus
A peptide hormone that is released by the gut after ingestion of food high in protein and/or fat.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
An animal whose body temperature is regulated by, and whose heat comes mainly from, the environment. Examples include snakes and bees.
ectotherm
Excessive eating.
hyperphagia
A hypothalamic region involved in eating and sexual behaviors.
ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
The process of synchronizing a biological rhythm to an environmental stimulus.
entrainment
The projection of retinal ganglion cells to the suprachiasmatic nuclei.
retinohypothalamic pathway
The slowest type of EEG wave, characteristic of stages 3 and 4 slow-wave sleep.
delta wave
A loosely defined, widespread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network. These nuclei are implicated in emotions.
limbic system
The study of the immune system and its interaction with the nervous system and behavior.
psychoneuroimmunology
A disorder, usually caused by viral infection, in which the facial nerve on one side stops conducting action potentials, resulting in paralysis on one side of the face.
Bell’s palsy
A protein that induces the proliferation of other cells, as in the immune system.
cytokine
A skin receptor cell type that detects light touch.
Meissner's corpuscle
An immediate early gene commonly used to identify activated neurons.
c-fos
A brainstem structure related to motor control.
red nucleus
The branch of a spinal nerve, arising from the ventral horn of the spinal cord, that carries motor messages from the spinal cord to the peripheral nervous system.
ventral root
An extensive region of the brainstem (extending from the medulla through the thalamus) that is involved in arousal (waking).
reticular formation
A region of the brainstem reticular formation implicated in sleep and modulation of spinal reflexes.
Paragigantocellular Nucleus (PGN)
A gene on the Y chromosome that directs the developing gonads to become testes.
SRY Gene
Sex-determining Region on the Y chromosome (SRY)
wolffian duct
A duct system in the embryo that will develop into male structures (epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles).
mullerian duct
This will develop into female structures in the embryo which are the fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vagina.
sensitive period
The period in development in which an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience.
Fatty insulation around axons.
Myelin
What is Myelin made of?
Glial cells
What does Myelin do?
Improves the speed of conduction of nerve impulses.
What is the input zone of a nerve cell?
Dendrite
What are a group of axons traveling together within the brain?
Tract
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials differ from excitatory postsynaptic potentials most significantly in their:
Direction of membrane polarization
Event-related potentials are particularly useful for diagnosing problems with _____.
hearing
Vagus nerve releases acetycholine which__________heart rate.
decreases
Complex psychological processes have been related to which measure in event-related potentials?
Long-latency components
The numbers of some receptors found in the brain may vary during the day by:
50%
When the minimum criteria for substance dependence have not been met, but there is evidence of maladaptive patterns of use that persists for at least one month, the diagnosis is:
Substance abuse
One novel approach to the treatment of drug abuse involves the use of _____ directed against drug molecules, resulting in a reduction in the concentration of the drug in the blood.
Antibodies
A major site of origin of projections using the neurotransmitter serotonin is the:
Raphe nucleus
The major factor that determines how many motoneurons will die during normal development is:
Target size
A prominent anatomical change in Alzheimer’s disease that can be seen without a microscope is widespread cortical _____.
atrophy
A particular gene of interest may be selectively altered or disrupted through the technique called _____.
site-directed mutagenesis
Which of the following portions of the body are represented most medially in the somatosensory cortex?
legs
Involves the use of numerous receptors, each of which is sensitive to only one part of the continuum of stimulus intensities.
Range fractionation
Phantom limb pain is an example of _____ pain.
neuropathic
Electrical message of a neuron that travels along the axon toward the presynaptic axon terminals.
action potential
Site of termination of the optic tract
Lateral geniculate nucleus
Carries axons of retinal ganglion cells
Optic tract
Amine: Quaternary Amine
Acetylcholine(ACh)
Amine: Monoamines
Catecholamines; noreepinephrine(NE), epinephrine(adrenaline), dopamine(DA)

Indoleamines; serotonin (5HT), melatonin
Amino Acids
GABA, glutamate, glycine, histamine
Neuropeptides: Opiod Peptides
Enkephaline: met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin

Endorphine: B-endorphin

Dynorphines: dynorphine A
Other Neuropeptides
Oxytocin, substance P, cholecystokinin(CCK), vasopressin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), hypothalamic releasing hormones,
Gases
Nitric Oxide, Carbon Monoxide
Neurocrine
Referring to secretory functions of neurons: synaptic transmission.
Paracrine
Cellular communication in which a chemical signal diffuses to nearby target cells through the intermediate extracellular space.
Autocrine
A signal that is secreted by a cell into its environment and that feeds back to the same cell.
Allomone
Chemical signal that is released outside the body by one species and affects the behavior of other species.
Properties of Hormones
1. Work in a gradual fashion
2. Act by changing the intensity
3. Increase probability of evoked behavior
4. Influenced by environment
5. Has multiple effects
6. Produced in small amounts, in bursts
7. Vary throughout the day
8. Effects of one hormone can markedly changed by the actions of another hormone.
9. Functions can vary across species, structure of given hormone is similar in all vertebrates.
10. Can only affect cells possessing receptor proteins that recognize the hormone and alter its cell function.
Infundibulum(Pituitary Stalk)
Thin piece of tissue that connects the Pituitary Gland to the Hypothalmus.
Pituitary Gland(hypophysis)
Endocrine gland located in a socket at the base of the skull.
kisspeptin
Hypothalamic peptide hormone that increases gonadotropin secretion by facilitating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Pineal Gland
Resides in the brain midline, releases melatonin.
notochord
Midline structure arising early in the embryonic development of vertebrates
Diablo
Protein released by the mitochondria in response to high calcium levels, activates apoptosis(surplus cells die)