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300 Cards in this Set

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The man who played a key role in the emergence of biopsychology as a discipline by writing "The Organization of Behavior" is
Hebb
What distinguishes biopsychology from the other subdisciplines of neuroscience?
its focus on the study of behavior
An advantage of biopsychological research on nonhuman animals as opposed to humans is that
the brains of nonhumans are simpler, there are fewer ethical constraints in studying nonhumans, and research in several species makes it possible to use the comparative approach.
In a well-designed experiment, there is only one systematic difference between the conditions. This difference is manipulated by the experimenter and is called the
independent variable
In some studies, subjects are not assigned to conditions; instead subjects are selected because they are already living under these conditions (e.g., alcohol consumers and alcohol nonconsumers). Such studies are
quasiexperiments
Scientific progress is most likely when different approaches are focused on a single problem, particularly when the strengths of one approach compensate for the weaknesses of the others. This is called
converging operations
Scientists study the unobservable
by scientific inference
Nature is to nurture as
genetics is to experience
All behavior is the product of
an organism's genetic endowment, an organism's experience, and an organism's perception of the current situation
Darwin was not the first to suggest that species evolve, but he was the first to suggest that
evolution occurs through natural selection
Fitness in the Darwinian sense refers to an organism's ability to
survive and contribute large numbers of fertile offspring to the next generation
About 200 thousand years ago, early hominins were gradually replaced in the African fossil record by
accountants
Metaphorically, evolution is a
bush
During the course of human evolution, there has been a general increase in the
size of the brain, number of cortical convolutions, size of the cortex, and size of the cerebrum
Mendel's early experiments challenged the central premise upon which previous ideas about inheritance had rested. This was the premise that
offspring can inherit only those traits that are displayed by their parents
Accidental alteration in individual genes during replication is called
mutation
A heritability estimate is
an estimate of the proportion of between-subject variability occurring in a particular trait in a particular study that resulted from genetic differences among the subjects of that study and likely to be higher in studies with little environmental variation
Many people overestimate the degree to which the human genome project will immediately contribute to the understanding of human development because they fail to appreciate that
it is still necessary to identify the timing of the expression of each gene throughout the lifespan and it is still necessary to determine how genes interact and are affected by experience
Neurons are specialized to receive, conduct, and transmit
electrochemical signals
The cone-shaped structure at the boundary between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the
axon hillock
The soma is
the cell body
What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated?
axon
Communication among mammalian neurons often occur
across synapses
Most of a neuron's DNA is in its
nucleus
Synaptic vesicles are most prevalent in the
buttons
Interneurons
integrate activity within a single brain structure; they don't conduct signals from one structure to another
Myelination
increases the speed of axonal conduction
The back of your head is
posterior
The tip of your nose is
medial and anterior
The spine of a human runs just beneath the
dorsal surface
Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of
cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons
White matter is white because
myelin is white
The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into cerebral neurons of
most proteins and other large molecules
A membrane potential is the difference in electrical charge between
the inside and outside of a cell
In its resting state, a neuron is said to be
polarized
Ions pass through the neural membrane via specialized pores called
ion channels
Action potentials originate at the
axon, adjacent to the axon hillock
During an action potential, the change in membrane potential associated with the influx of sodium ions triggers the
opening of potassium channels
The end of the rising phase of an action potential occurs when the
sodium channels close
The brief period of time immediately after the initiation of an action potential when it is absolutely impossible to initiate another one in the same neuron is called the
absolute refractory period
Conduction of action potentials in myelinated axons
is faster than in unmyelinated axons
Neurons without axons do not
generate action potentials
Neurotransmitters are often stored in
nodes of Ranvier
The process of neurotransmitter release is referred to as
exocytosis
Once released, neurotransmitter molecules typically produce signals in postsynaptic neurons by
binding to postsynaptic receptors
After release, neurotransmitters are deactivated in the synapse by
reuptake and enzymatic degradation
Which inhibitory neurotransmitter is considered to be the most prevalent in the mammalian CNS?
GABA
Which is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS?
glutamate
Drugs that block the reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse are usually
agonists of that neurotransmitter
Drugs that degrade vesicles and cause the neurotransmitter molecules to leak into the cytoplasm, where they are destroyed by enzymes, are
antagonists of the neurotransmitter
Stereotaxic surgery typically requires
a stereotaxic atlas, a stereotaxic instrument, a head holder, and an electrode holder
Which of the following brain lesion techniques is least likely to be associated with the destruction of major blood vessels?
aspiration lesions
Intracellular unit recording is not commonly used in biopsychological research because
it is very difficult to keep the tip of a microelectrode inside a single neuron in a moving subject.
Cerebral dialysis is a method of
measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals at particular sites in the brains of active animals.
Which of the following is a weakness of the gene knockout technique as a method of biopsychological research?
Most behavioral traits are influenced by many interacting genes, Elimination of one gene often influences the expression of other genes, and The effects of some gene knockouts are likely to depend on experience
Transgenic mice always possess
genes of another species
A behavioral paradigm normally includes a method for
producing the behavioral phenomenon under investigation and measuring the behavioral phenomenon under investigation
Neuropsychological assessment is useful because it can
assist diagnosis, influence treatment, and be the basis for effective counseling
With respect to vision, wavelength is to intensity as
color is to brightness
Light passes through layers of the retina in which of the following sequences?
retinal ganglion cell layer, horizontal cell layer, receptor layer and retinal ganglion cell layer, amacrine cell layer, receptor layer
The ability of a stationary eye to fill in the gap in its visual field that results from the blind spot is called
completion
High-acuity, color vision is mediated by the small foveal area of the retina. Nevertheless, we have perceptions of the world that are expansive in both their color and their detail. This is possible because
our visual systems integrate the foveal images from recent visual fixations to produce the subjective visual perception that we are experiencing at any instant.
Recent studies of the function of primary visual cortex neurons using natural visual scenes rather than simple artificial stimuli have discovered that
visual neurons are plastic: As a background scene changes, the way that a neuron responds to elements in its receptive field changes
The component theory provides the best explanation of color coding at the
receptor level.
The opponent theory provides the best explanation of color coding at the
bipolar level, retinal ganglion cell level, and cortical level
The phenomenon of color constancy makes the point that
the perceived color of an object is not solely determined by the wavelengths of light that it reflects
According to the retinex theory, the color of an object depends on
its reflectance and the proportion of light of different wavelengths that it reflects
Many neuropsychological patients with scotomas are unaware of them because of
completion
Blindsight occurs most commonly in people with
primary visual cortex damage
Prosopagnosics
can usually recognize a face as a face, have difficulty telling one face from another, and report seeing faces as a jumble of individual parts, rather than as a unitary whole
Modern biopsychological theory considers sensory systems to be
hierarchical, functionally segregated, and parallel.
The loudness, pitch, and timbre of a sound are directly related to the __________, respectively, of the vibrations that produced it.
amplitude, frequency, and complexity
The auditory system is organized
tonotopically
Barn owls are often used in auditory research on sound localization because they have
excellent sound localization ability.
Bilateral damage to which of the following auditory structures would be most likely to produce complete and permanent hearing loss?
cochlear nerve
The somatosensory system is
exteroceptive, proprioceptive, and interoceptive
The identification of objects by touch is
stereognosis
The longest neuron in the human body
is somatosensory
Evidence suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a major role in the
emotional reaction to pain
Severe chronic pain in the absence of a recognizable pain stimulus is
neuropathic.
Smell and taste
combine to produce the sensation of flavor.
Much of the interest in the chemical senses stems from the fact that
they play important roles in the social lives of many species
Because we can discriminate among thousands of different odors and each receptor responds to many odors, coding in the olfactory system has been assumed to operate according to
component principles
Olfactory receptor cells differ from other receptor cells in one important way:
New ones are created throughout life
The olfactory system is unique among the exteroceptive sensory systems in that its signals
reach cortical tissue before reaching the thalamus.
Unlike olfactory receptors, each taste receptor has no
axon.
The ability to focus on only a small subset of the stimuli that are being received by sensory organs is called
selective attention
Selective attention
improves the perception of stimuli that are its focus
The cocktail-party phenomenon refers to your ability to "focus on" a specific conversation at a cocktail party while
unconsciously monitoring other conversations
If you were looking at holiday slides of your family and a major background object, such as a tree, moved as you blinked, you would likely
experience change blindness.
During sensorimotor learning
the locus of control is often shifted to lower levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy, the locus of control is often shifted from conscious to unconscious control mechanisms, and individual responses are often integrated into continuous motor programs
Which structure is thought to be involved in the integration of the sensory information that is the basis for initiating a movement?
posterior parietal cortex
The decision to initiate a voluntary response seems to be made in the
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Neurons that fire in response to making a particular response, observing somebody else making the response, or just thinking about the response are called
mirror neurons
The somatotopic map of the primary motor cortex is called the
motor homunculus
It has been estimated that over half the neurons of the brain are in a structure that constitutes only 10% of the brain's total mass. This structure is the
cerebellum
The consequences of cerebellar damage include
difficulty in maintaining steady postures, inability to precisely control the direction, force, velocity, and amplitude of movements, inability to adapt patterns of motor output to changing conditions, and severe disturbances of balance, gait, speech, and eye movement
When a motor neuron fires, all of the muscle fibers of its motor
unit contract together
According to current theory, the sensorimotor system
comprises a hierarchy of central sensorimotor programs
Which of the following is a principle of sensorimotor organization?
The sensorimotor system is hierarchically organized, Motor output is guided by sensory input, and Learning changes the nature and locus of sensorimotor control
The first major phase of neurodevelopment is induction of the
neural plate
Totipotential means that a developing cell
is capable of developing into any type of cell in the organism
Embryonic cells that have the potential for unlimited renewal and have the ability to develop into different kinds of mature cells if they are transplanted to different sites are often called
embryonic stem cells
The neural plate develops directly into the
neural groove
The neural groove develops into the neural
tube
The neural crest develops into the
peripheral nervous system
At the tip of each growing axon or dendrite is an amoeba-like process called
a growth cone
The first growth cone of a developing tract to reach the target is called a __________ growth cone
pioneer
Neuron death
is a stage of normal early neural development
Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because apoptosis does not involve
inflammation
With a few exceptions, all of the neurons that will compose the adult human brain have developed and are in their appropriate location by the
seventh month of prenatal development
The human brain grows after birth because of
synaptogenesis, myelination, and increased dendritic branching.
The course of human cognitive development is thought to reflect development in the
prefrontal cortex.
Neurons and synapses that are not activated by experience usually
do not survive
Several studies have shown that early music training increases the size of the
auditory cortex that responds to complex musical tones
It is now generally acknowledged that adult brains are
capable of major adaptation and not as plastic as developing brains
In mammals, adult neurogenesis occurs in the
hippocampus and olfactory bulb
Tinnitus
is ringing in the ears and leads to a reorganization of primary auditory cortex
Evidence suggests that autism
is caused by several genes and interactions with the environment
Considering their mental retardation, people with Williams syndrome tend to have remarkably good
language ability
Neuropsychological disorders with genetic causes are not usually related to dominant genes because
those who possess them are less likely to produce fit offspring
Necrotic cell death
usually involves inflammation
A professor in the middle of a lecture unbuttoned his shirt and rebuttoned it several times in rapid succession, started to sing, and then ran out of the room. He was discovered several hours later sleeping in the rain on a bench in front of the university library. He could not remember his classroom behavior, and he had no idea how he had fallen asleep in the rain. The professor may have experienced
a complex partial seizure
Grand mal convulsions produce __________, which itself can cause brain damage.
cerebral hypoxia
In about 90% of patients with Parkinson's disease, there is clear evidence that the disease was caused by
none of the above
Which general class of drugs is useful in treating Parkinson's disease?
dopamine agonists
Huntington's disease is caused by
a single dominant gene
It has been shown that multiple sclerosis is more common in people who spent their childhoods in a cool climate. This information was obtained from
an epidemiological study
Major neuropathological correlates of Alzheimer's disease are
neurofibrillary tangles in the neural cytoplasm and amyloid plaques
Evidence suggests that mammalian PNS neurons are capable of accurate regeneration only if they
receive stimulation and guidance from Schwann cells
Studies of neural reorganization in adult mammals make an important point: Neural reorganization
can start to occur very quickly (i.e., within minutes) and can, if given enough time, be of substantial magnitude.
Several clinical case studies have found that Parkinson's patients improve following transplants of __________ , but the treatment remains controversial
fetal substantia nigra cells
Removing tissue from one part of a person's body and implanting it in another part of the same person is called
an autotransplant
In one provocative study of paraplegic rats, stem cells were injected into an area of spinal damage. Remarkably,
most of the cells survived and developed into neurons
Ramachandran found that the experience of phantom limbs did not come from the nerves of the amputated limbs; they came from the
parts of the body that now activated the area of somatosensory cortex that formerly received input from the amputated limb.
H.M.'s surgery was a success in that
the incidence of his seizures was markedly reduced, his IQ was increased, and it became possible to reduce the level of his anticonvulsant medication.
A major contribution of H.M.'s case was the following: It
was the first to strongly implicate the medial temporal lobes in memory, effectively challenged the view that memorial functions are diffusely and equivalently distributed throughout the brain, provided support for the view that there are distinct modes of short-term and long-term storage, and provided evidence of memory without conscious awareness.
One major difference between the amnesia associated with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome and that associated with bilateral medial temporal lobe damage is that patients with advanced Korsakoff's syndrome have
a retrograde amnesia that can extend back into childhood
In Alzheimer's disease, the brain damage is
diffuse
Because H.M.'s surgery seemed to disrupt only those retrograde memories acquired shortly before his surgery, it was widely believed that the hippocampus
temporarily consolidates short-term memories.
A change in the brain that stores a memory is called
an engram.
The current consensus is that memories of experiences are likely stored
diffusely throughout the structures of the brain that participated in the original experience
Which structure is thought to store memories for visual images?
inferotemporal cortex
The amygdala is thought to play a role in
memory for the emotional significance of experiences
The amygdala appears to be involved in the __________ component of memory, whereas the cerebellum appears to be involved in the __________ component.
emotional; sensorimotor
Long-term potentiation has been most frequently studied in the
hippocampus
When neuron A repeatedly fires neuron B, some change occurs that increases the efficiency with which A fires B. This statement is
Hebb's postulate for learning
The NMDA receptor is a type of __________ receptor
glutamate
Approximately what proportion of healthy people experience infantile amnesia?
100%
According to the text, the scientific evidence has not yet established the effectiveness of
nootropics
Eating sweet and fatty foods is adaptive for many mammals living in the wild because in nature these tastes
are characteristic of energy-rich foods and are often found in association with beneficial vitamins and minerals
According to the text, many people who live in modern industrialized societies have difficulty eating a diet with enough vitamins and minerals because
they eat too many different flavors each day for their systems to learn the relation between the flavor of a food and its effects.
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are often viewed as variants of the same disorder because
both anorexic patients and bulimic patients have distorted body images, many patients straddle the two diagnoses, both anorexia and bulimia are correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and both disorders display the same pattern of distribution in the general population.
Although __________ agonists are effective in the treatment of obesity, they are currently not in wide use because they tend to have dangerous side effects
serotonin
Set-point theories of hunger and eating are inconsistent with
eating-related evolutionary pressures as we understand them, the major effects on eating of taste, learning, and social factors, and the failure of researchers to confirm that energy deficits are the usual stimulus for eating
According to the text, anorexic patients - or anybody else who is severely undernourished - should not be fed
meals
According to the text, obesity is now prevalent in industrialized countries because
high-positive-incentive value foods are continuously and readily available in these countries, humans have evolved to eat as much as they can when food is available, and cultures have evolved to promote eating when food is available.
Exercise programs for the obese have proven to be relatively ineffective in promoting weight loss. This surprising result is likely attributable to the fact that
the majority of the body's calorie expenditure is dedicated to maintaining the physiological processes of the body rather than fueling behavior and after exercising many people consume extra drinks and food that offset their calorie loss
Small amounts of food eaten prior to a meal __________ hunger. This is called __________.
increase; the appetizer effect
According to the text, an important question about anorexia nervosa that remains to be addressed is the following:
What keeps an overpowering hunger drive from kicking in once anorexic patients start to starve?
A major problem with the set-point theory of body weight regulation is that it
cannot explain the increasing prevalence of obesity
Diet-induced thermogenesis refers to the increases in body temperature produced by
increases in body fat
The inability of set-point theories to account for the basic phenomena of hunger and eating has led to the development of
positive-incentive theories
The leaky-barrel model of body weight regulation
is a settling-point model, can account for the fact that body weight often remains relatively stable, can account for the fact that compensatory changes occur to reduce decreases or increases in body weight, and can account for the fact that dieters tend to regain lost weight once they go off their diets.
According to the lipostatic theory
each person has a body-fat set point and maintaining fat levels in the body at homeostatic levels is a major factor in the long-term regulation of food intake.
According to the positive-incentive theory, the main cause of hunger in food-replete conditions is
the presence of food or the anticipation of its availability.
Which of the following produces a substantial increase in the caloric intake of laboratory rats and a significant increase in their body weight
offering them a cafeteria diet, rather than their usual laboratory diet
Many people assume that hunger is normally triggered when energy resources fall
below a prescribed optimal homeostatic level called a set point.
All set-point systems are __________ systems.
negative feedback
Weingarten's studies showed that the initiation of eating can be a consequence of
Pavlovian conditioning
Many hunger and satiety peptides have receptors in the
hypothalamus
Efforts to develop a leptin treatment for typical cases of human obesity have been
disappointing
The three phases of energy metabolism are, in sequence,
cephalic, absorptive, and fasting
Adrenogenital syndrome is associated with
a decrease in the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortices, high levels of adrenal androgens, and ambiguous reproductive organs in many genetic females.
A tropic hormone is any hormone that
stimulates or suppresses the release of other hormones.
The fact that the probability of homosexuality of human males increases as a function of the number of older brothers
is the fraternal birth order effect.
Estradiol has been found to
increase adult neurogenesis, increase synaptogenesis, and promote axonal regeneration.
Releasing hormones control the release of
tropic hormones
Testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, amenorrhea, sterility, hirsutism, cancer, acne, and muscle spasms are all potential symptoms of
anabolic steroid use
The first releasing hormone to be isolated was
thyrotropin releasing hormone.
Releasing hormones are synthesized in the
hypothalamus
If a homosexual male were gonadectomized and then given extremely large replacement injections of testosterone, his primary sexual orientation would be
homosexual
The external reproductive organs of males and females develop
from the same bipotential tissu
Releasing hormones are released into the
hypothalamopituitary portal system
Which of the following statements describes our current understanding of differences in the structure of human female and human male brains?
Many structural differences have been documented.
The aromatization hypothesis is that
estradiol created in the brains of developing males from circulating testosterone masculinizes their brains.
Which of the following is not a true statement about genetic males with androgenic insensitivity syndrome?
They have ovaries.
There are often large minute-to-minute fluctuations in the levels of a person's circulating hormones. These fluctuations are often the result of
pulsatile hormone release
One particularly puzzling thing about the effects of orchidectomy in adult males is the
vastly different rates at which sexual motivation and potency decline in different men
The following finding suggests that the sex drive of women is influenced by testosterone:
Replacement injections of testosterone increased the proceptivity of ovariectomized and adrenalectomized female rhesus monkeys, Various measures of sexual motivation were correlated with the testosterone levels of healthy women, and Replacement injections of testosterone increased the sexual motivation of woman who had been both ovariectomized and adrenalectomized.
Puberty is associated with an increase in the release of
growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadotropic hormone
The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are
progestins, estrogens, and androgens
The master gland has its own master; where is it?
hypothalamus
In the absence of Sry protein, the
cortex of a primordial gonad develops into an ovary.
Which of the following is not a common consequence of ovariectomy in adult human females?
elimination of sex drive
John Money's famous case study of ablatio penis was initially used to argue that
social learning dominates genes when it comes to gender identity.
Hormones influence sexual behavior by
directing the development of many of the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish one as male or female and activating the reproduction-related behavior of sexually mature adults.
All of the sex steroids that are released by the gonads are also released by the
adrenal cortex.
Metaphorically speaking, which gland is the conductor of the endocrine orchestra?
anterior pituitary
Most hormones fit into one of the following three categories:
amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins, or steroids.
As we fall asleep,
alpha activity ceases.
Sleep spindles and K complexes are characteristic of
stage 2 sleep.
REMs are associated with
emergent stage 1 EEG.
During REM sleep, there
is an absence of EMG activity in the muscles of the body core.
Each cycle of sleep during the night tends to be about
90 minutes long.
During REM sleep, changes in autonomic nervous system activity suggest
arousal.
People who claim to be nondreamers
sometimes recall dreams if awakened during REM sleep.
In males, some degree of penile erection almost always occurs during
sex-related dreams, dreams with no sexual content, and REM sleep.
Somnambulism typically occurs during
stage 4 sleep, dreaming, and emergent stage 1 sleep.
According to the text,
Freud viewed dreams as symbolic representations of repressed sexual conflict, there is no convincing evidence for Freud's theory of dreams, and Freud's view of dreams has been widely disseminated to the general public as if it were fact.
According to Hobson's activation-synthesis theory of dreaming, dream content reflects
random brain stem activity and the cortex's inherent tendency to try to make sense of these ambiguous signals.
Theories postulating that sleep permits the body to recover from internal deficits produced by wakefulness are often referred to as
recuperation theories
Circadian means
lasting about 1 day.
Adaptation theories of sleep assume that we are programmed to sleep at night
regardless of what we do during the day.
The comparative investigation of sleep has led to an important conclusion: It has suggested that
sleep serves an important physiological function, the function of sleep is not some special higher-order cognitive function, sleep may be essential for survival, but it is not necessarily required in large quantities, and the amount of time that a members of a particular species tend to sleep is related to how long it takes them to consume enough energy and how susceptible they are to predation when they are sleeping.
Most studies and personal experiences of sleep deprivation are confounded by
stress.
The following is a prediction of many recuperation theories of sleep:
Long periods of wakefulness will produce physiological and behavioral disturbances, The disturbances produced by sleep deprivation will grow worse as the deprivation continues, and After a period of sleep deprivation, most missed sleep will be regained.
Sleep deprivation lasting several days usually produces
microsleeps.
The most influential circadian zeitgeber is the
light-dark cycle.
The fact that most people sleep almost exactly the same amount each day under free-running conditions, despite large day-to-day variations in physical and mental activity provides strong support for the dominance of
circadian factors in the regulation of sleep.
There is good evidence that the internal circadian clock is located in the
suprachiasmatic nuclei.
The first mammalian circadian gene to have its structure characterized was
clock
Because REM sleep is similar to wakefulness in several respects, it makes sense that REM sleep circuits are controlled by a structure involved in maintaining wakefulness: the
reticular activating system
Which of the following is a problem with the long-term use of benzodiazepines to treat insomnia?
tolerance, reduction of life expectancy, distortion of normal sleep, and next-day drowsiness.
In view of the evidence, the widespread practice of taking melatonin to promote sleep is
likely to be of no more than minor benefit.
After reviewing the research literature on nightly sleep reduction and trying it himself, the author of your text, concluded that
many people can reduce their sleep to about 5.5 hours per night with no serious adverse effects other than day-time sleepiness when they are sedentary.
Most laws governing drug abuse were enacted
in the early 1900s or before and before there was relevant scientific information
Psychoactive drugs are those that affect
the activity of the central nervous system, subjective experience, and behavior.
Taking one drug can often produce tolerance to other drugs; such tolerance is called
cross tolerance.
Sensitization is the opposite of
tolerance.
__________ tolerance to psychoactive drugs is tolerance that occurs because less drug gets to its site of action in the brain.
Metabolic
Tolerance that occurs because the target tissue becomes less reactive to the drug after exposure is
functional tolerance.
According to the text, addicts are drug users who
continue to use a drug despite the drug's adverse effects on their health and social life, and despite their efforts to stop.
Support for the theory that tolerance is triggered by drug-induced changes in neural activity rather than from drug exposure per se came from the finding in one study that tolerance did not develop to the anticonvulsant effects of alcohol unless
convulsive stimulation was administered after each alcohol injection.
According to Siegel, heroin users are more likely to die from an overdose when they
take heroin in an environment in which they have never taken it before.
The early physical-dependence theories of drug addiction were discredited by the observation that
detoxified addicts almost always return to their drug-taking habits.
A key point of the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction is that
the positive-incentive value of addictive drugs habituates with use, the pleasure-producing effects of addictive drugs are sensitized, and although the anticipated pleasurable effects of addicted drugs increase as the result of drug use, their actual pleasurable effects may not.
Many researchers believe that a major cause of drug relapse is
priming, stress, and drug-related cues.
Modern physical-dependence theories of drug addiction attempt to account for the fact that addicts frequently relapse after lengthy drug-free periods by postulating
that conditioned withdrawal effects are the basis of drug craving
Olds and Milner argued that the brain circuits that support intracranial self-stimulation are the same ones that mediate
the pleasurable effects of natural rewarding stimuli such as food, water, and sex.
Studies of electrical intracranial self-stimulation have influenced the development of biopsychological theories of addiction by indicating that
there are particular areas of the brain that mediate the experience of pleasure.
Many early studies of intracranial self-stimulation focused on the stimulation of the
lateral hypothalamus or septum
Which of the following findings suggests that intracranial self-stimulation involves the activation of natural reward circuits?
Brain stimulation through electrodes that support self-stimulation often elicits motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and copulation and Increasing levels of natural motivation sometimes increases the rate of self-stimulation.
Many self-stimulation sites contain
dopaminergic neurons
The animal model that best approximates human drug addiction is the
drug self-administration paradigm
Evidence that the nucleus accumbens is involved in drug addiction comes from reports that
animals will self-administer microinjections of addictive drugs directly into the nucleus accumbens, microinjection of addictive drugs into the nucleus accumbens can lead to the development of conditioned place preferences, and lesions to the nucleus accumbens reduce the rewarding effects of systemic drugs.
Originally, the nucleus accumbens was thought to mediate the experience of reward, but some current evidence suggests that increases in extracellular dopamine occur in the nucleus accumbens when the
subject expects the reward
Drug addicts have been found to make poor decisions and to
engage in excessive risky behavior, make particularly poor decisions, and display deficits in self-control
In addition to the nucleus accumbens, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala are thought to play major roles in
the initial taking of addictive drugs.
Which of the following is a finding about addiction that is currently influencing the study of its brain mechanisms?
Addiction is psychologically complex, Addiction involves many parts of the brain, Addiction involves neurotransmitters other than dopamine, and Addictive behavior is a general problem that involves more than addiction to drugs.
Darwin believed that
expressions of emotion evolve from behaviors that indicate what an animal is likely to do next, expressions of emotion evolve in ways that enhance their communicative function and that their original function may be lost, and opposite messages are often signaled by opposite movements and postures.
According to the James-Lange theory, the
experience of emotion is produced by the brain's perception of the body's reactions to emotional stimuli.
According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the feeling of emotion by the cortex and the expression of emotion by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems are
parallel processes.
Bard's research on sham rage led him to conclude that the
hypothalamus and adjoining structures play critical roles in the expression of aggression.
Papez attributed emotion to activity in what became known as the
limbic system.
The Kluver-Bucy syndrome appears to result, to a large degree, from bilateral damage to the
amygdala.
The polygraph does not detect lies, it detects
arousal.
Because even innocent people undergoing a lie-detector test are likely to be aroused by questions about their guilt or innocence, the
guilty-knowledge technique should be employed when possible.
In order to employ the guilty-knowledge technique, the polygrapher needs to
have a piece of information about the crime that is known by the guilty party but not by any of the other suspects.
The results of Ekman and Friesen's (1971) study of an isolated New Guinea tribe suggest that
the facial expressions that are associated with particular human emotions are the same in all cultures.
The theory that facial expressions can influence emotional experience is called the
facial feedback hypothesis.
The true expressions that momentarily break through false expressions are called
microexpressions.
Fear is the motivating force for
defensive behaviors.
The fact that social aggression in many species occurs more frequently between males than between females is often attributed to the
organizational effects of testosterone and activational effects of testosterone.
The evidence that testosterone affects the aggressive behavior of humans is inconsistent. The text suggests that this inconsistency may be attributable to the fact that
hormones may have less effect on human aggression than they do on aggression in other species, the tests that have been used to study testosterone and aggression in humans are markedly different from those used in other species, and testosterone can be synthesized and act locally in particular brain structures, but studies of testosterone and human aggression have been based on general blood levels of testosterone.
The structure in which the emotional significance of sensory signals is learned and retained is believed to be the
amygdala.
Each amygdala is
a cluster of many nuclei.
An important advance in the study of the physiology of stress came with the discovery in the 1990s that stress triggers the release of __________, which play a role in inflammation and fever.
cytokines.
Disorders whose symptoms are primarily physical but whose development is greatly influenced by psychological factors are called
psychosomatic disorders.
The immune system has two components: the innate immune system and the __________ immune system.
adaptive
Vaccination is often an effective preventive measure because
the adaptive immune system has a memory.
Stress that improves health has been termed
eustress.
Stressed individuals are more likely than unstressed individuals to report being ill. This may occur because
they expect to be more ill, illness while stressed is more uncomfortable, and stress contributed to the cause of the illness.
A mirror-like system is thought to be the neural mechanism of
empathy.
The human amygdala seems to be specifically involved in the
perception of fear in others.
The main difficulty in diagnosing psychiatric disorders is that
patients suffering from the same psychiatric disorder often display different symptoms and patients suffering from different psychiatric disorders often display the same symptoms.
The symptoms of schizophrenia are often divided into two categories:
positive and negative.
Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggest that schizophrenia
is greatly influenced by genetic factors.
Evidence that environmental factors play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia is that the concordance rate for identical twins is
much less than 100%.
Which of the following early experiential factors have been implicated in some cases of schizophrenia?
stress, faulty autoimmune reactions, infections, and exposure to toxins
Which of the following can trigger schizophrenic episodes?
amphetamine and cocaine
The clinical effectiveness of typical antischizophrenic drugs is positively correlated with the degree to which they bind to
D2 receptors.
Structural brain-imaging studies of schizophrenic patients typically reveal
widespread abnormalities, reduced brain size, and abnormally large cerebral ventricles.
Because schizophrenia appears to be a neurodevelopmental disorder, several studies have tracked the development of brain damage in schizophrenic patients. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that
extensive brain damage exists when patients first seek medical help and have their first brain scan, brain damage continues to develop after the initial diagnosis, and damage to different areas of the brain develops at different rates.
To be diagnosed as clinical depression (or major depressive disorder), the condition must
last more than 2 weeks.
Many of the people who experience clinical depression also experience recurring periods of
mania.
Depression is often divided into two categories: reactive depression and __________ depression.
endogenous
Depressed patients who do not experience periods of mania are said to suffer from __________ affective disorders.
unipolar
Evidence directly linking stress to the development of clinical depression is
sparse.
Several large scale studies have compared the effectiveness of various antidepressants to placebos. These studies have found that
various classes of antidepressants are similarly effective and antidepressants are not much better than placebos.
Many studies have found structural and functional brain pathology in patients suffering from affective disorders. Although there is little consensus about the exact location of the brain pathology, it is most commonly observed in two structures: the
amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex.
The diathesis-stress theory of depression is that depression is caused by
the interaction of a genetic susceptibility and stress.
Chronic fear that persists in the absence of any direct threat is known as
anxiety.
Most prevalent of all psychiatric disorders are the __________ disorders.
anxiety
Clinical depression and anxiety are comorbid disorders, which means that they
tend to occur together in the same individuals.
The subjects of the vast majority of clinical trials are
patients.
Clinical trials are typically conducted in __________ separate phases.
3
Determining the maximum safe dose typically occurs in the __________ phase of human clinical trials.
first
The goal of the second of the three phases of human clinical trials is
identifying the most effective doses and schedules of treatment.
A disorder of psychological function sufficiently severe to require treatment by a psychiatrist is a __________ disorder.
psychiatric