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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-the gastrointestinal process of breaking down food and absorbing its constituents into the body
How is energy delivered?
2)amino acids
How is energy stored?
Phases of Energy Metabolism
1)cephalic phase
2)absorptive phase
3)fasting phase
Cephalic Phase
“preparatory phase”
absorptive phase
“energy is absorbed into the bloodstream”; meets immediate energy needs
fasting phase
all the unstored energy as been used
Pancreatic Hormones
promotes use of glucose as primary source of energy
-promotes conversion of blood-borne fuels to storable forms
-promotes storage of glycogen in liver and muscle, fat in adipose tissue, protein in muscle
-in cephalic phase, insulin lowers level of blood-borne fuels, and in absorptive phase it minimizes increasing levels of fuels by utilizing and storing them
conversion of protein to glucose
“glucostatic theory”
glucose levels determine what we eat
“lipostatic theory”
fat stores determine the amount of consumption over long term
Problems with the Set Point theory
epidemic of obesity and overweight people should not occur
-inconsistent with basic eating-related evolutionary pressure
-fail to recognize major influences such as sight, smell and taste
Positive-Incentive Perspective
we are drawn by the pleasure of eating, evolved to crave food
-eating is influenced by many factors:
1-learned preference for flavors
2-past experiences
3-time since the last meal
4-social influences
Factors that determine what/when/how much we eat
-Adaptive species-typical preferences
-sweet and fatty tastes: high energy, vitamins and minerals
-salty: sodium-rich
“appetizer effect”
small amounts of food may increase hunger
feeling full; food in gut and glucose in blood can induce satiety signals
Known as "feeding center"
- LH lesioned animals starve to death, LH became known as the “feeding center”
known as the "satiety center"
-VMH lesioned animals became fat, grew to be 4x their bod weight, VMH became known as the “satiety center”
production of fat
breakdown of fat
Role of G.I Tract in Satiety
studies suggest that stomach contractions lead to hunger (Cannon and Washburn) but someone who had their stomach removed still reported hunger pangs
-Koopmans used second stomach preparation; rats eat less when 2nd stomach was loaded with food even though no innervation or nutrients absorbed
Hunger and Satiety Peptides
gut peptides that decrease meal size: cholecystokinin (CCK), bombesin, glucagon, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, somatostatin
- peptides are usually synthesized in the hypothalamus: neuropeptide Y, galanin, orexin-A and ghrelin
-hypothalamus plays role in eating behaviours