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131 Cards in this Set
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E = hv = hc/λ

E=photon's energy
h=Planck constant v = frequency of radiation λ= wavelength of radiation c=velocity of propagation of light in vacuum (3x108 m/s) 
spectrophotometry


E = ΔE*el + ΔE*v + ΔE*r

E= energy of absorbed photon
ΔEel/ΔEv/ΔEr = difference in electronic/vibrational/rotational energy levels 
spectrophotometry


I*t = I*0 e^(kd)

Lambert Law
I*t= intensity of transmitted beam I*0 = intensity of incident beam d = path length k= λdependent absorption coefficient 
spectrophotometry


T = I*t / I*0

T = transmittance
I*t= intensity of transmitted beam I*0 = intensity of incident beam 
spectrophotometry


A =  logT

A = absorbance
T = transmittance 
spectrophotometry


A = ε*λ dc

Beer Law
A = absorbance ε*λ = absorptivity d = path length c = concentration of absorbing species 
spectrophotometry


T=10^(ε*λ dc)

BeerLambert Law
T= transmittance ε*λ = absorptivity d = path length c = concentration of absorbing species 
spectrophotometry


Tan α = n

n= refractive index of reflecting surface
α = brewster angle (of incidence) 
polarimetry


[α]*λ = φ / l c

φ = rotation angle
[α]*λ = specific rotation l = path length c = concentration 
polarimetry


optical purity = [α]*mixture / [α]*pure component x 100%

[α]*mixture = specific rotation of a mixture
[α]*pure component = specific rotation of pure component 
polarimetry


I= I*0 (cosα)^2

Malus's Law
I = intensity of transmitted beam I*0 = incident beam (on polarizer) α = angle b/n plane of polarization and transmission axis of polarizer 
polarimetry


hv = E*K + E*B

hv = photon's energy
E*K = kinetic energy of ejected electron E*B = binding energy of electron 
attenuation of electro. radiation


hv = E*K + hv'

hv = photon's energy
E*K = kinetic energy of ejected electron hv' = energy of scattered photon 
attenuation of electro. radiation


hv = (E*K^+) + (m*op)c^2 + (E*K^) + (m*oe)c^2

(E*K^+) = kinetic energy of positron
(m*op) = rest mass of positron (E*K^) = kinetic energy of electron (m*oe) = rest mass of electron c = speed of light in vacuum 
attenuation of electro. radiation


I = I*0 e^(μx)

Lambert Law
I = intensity of transmitted beam I*0 = intensity of incident beam μ = linear attenuation coefficient (1/m) x = absorber thickness 
attenuation of electro. radiation


μ*m = μ / d

μ*m = mass attenuation coefficient (m^2/kg)
μ = linear attenuation coefficient (1/m) d= absorber density 
attenuation of electro. radiation


I = I*0 e^(μ*m dx)

Lambert Law
I = intensity of transmitted beam I*0 = intensity of incident beam μ*m = mass attenuation coefficient (m^2/kg) d= absorber density x = absorber thickness 
attenuation of electro. radiation


I*0/2= I*0 e^(μ HVL)

HVL = half value layer, absorber thickness that reduces I*0 to half
I*0 = intensity of incident beam μ = linear attenuation coefficient (1/m) 
attenuation of electro. radiation


HVL = ln2/μ

HVL = half value layer
μ = linear attenuation coefficient (1/m) 
attenuation of electro. radiation


a = ΔN/Δt

a = counting rate
ΔN = # of pulses Δt = unit time 
attenuation of electro. radiation


a*x = a*0 e^(μx)

Lambert Law
a*x = counting rate for absorber thickness x a*0 = counting rate for no absorber μ = linear attenuation coefficient (1/m) x = absorber thickness 
attenuation of electro. radiation


ln a*x = ln a*0  μx

a*x = counting rate for absorber thickness x
a*0 = counting rate for no absorber μ = linear attenuation coefficient (1/m) x = absorber thickness 
attenuation of electro. radiation


F = η S Δv/Δx

F = force needed to maintain a uniform motion of plate
η = viscosity S = surface area of fluid layer Δv = diff. in velocity Δx = diff. in distance b/n 2 fluid layers Δv/Δx = velocity gradient/rate of shear (1/s) 
viscosity


τ = F / S

τ = shear stress
F = force needed to maintain a uniform motion of plate (constant Δv) S = surface area of fluid layer 
viscosity


τ = η Δv/Δx

τ = shear stress
η = viscosity Δv = diff. in velocity Δx = diff. in distance b/n 2 fluid layers Δv/Δx = velocity gradient/rate of shear (1/s) 
viscosity


η = F Δx / S Δv

F = force needed to maintain a uniform motion of plate
η = viscosity SI unit = Pa⋅s, kg/(m⋅s) or Poise S = surface area of fluid layer Δv = diff. in velocity Δx = diff. in distance b/n 2 fluid layers Δv/Δx = velocity gradient/rate of shear (1/s) 
viscosity


F*S = 6 π r η v

Stokes Law
F*S = frictional (Stokes) force r = radius of ball η = viscosity v = velocity of ball 
viscosity


F*B + F*S = Q

F*B = buoyant force
F*S = Stokes force Q = force of gravity 
viscosity


4/3 π r^3 d*l g + 6π r η v = 4/3π r^3 dg

V=volume of ball (4/3π r^3), d=density of ball material
r= ball radius g= acc. due to gravity d*l=density of liquid η = viscosity v = velocity of ball 
viscosity


η = (2r^2 g(d – d*l)) / (9v)

d=density of ball material
r= ball radius g= acc. due to gravity d*l=density of liquid η = viscosity v = velocity of ball 
viscosity


η / η*0 = 1 +2.5 Φ

Einstein's formula
η / η*0 = relative viscosity η = viscosity of solution of spherical molecules η*0 = viscosity of pure solvent Φ = volumic coefficient 
viscosity of solutions


Φ = V*s / V*t

Φ = volumic coefficient
V*s = volume of particles of dissolved substance V*t = total volume of solution 
viscosity of solutions


V*s = n N*A v

V*s = volume of particles of dissolved substance
n = # of moles of substance N*A = Avogadro's number (6.02x 10^23 1/mol) v = volume of a single particle 
viscosity of solutions


Φ = (c N*A v) / M

Φ = volumic coefficient
V*s = volume of particles of dissolved substance n = # of moles of substance N*A = Avogadro's number (6.02x 10^23 1/mol) v = volume of a single particle c = concentration of solution M = molar mass 
viscosity of solutions


η*s = (η / η*0 ) – 1

η*s = specific viscosity
η / η*0 = relative viscosity 
viscosity of solutions


η*s = 2.5Φ

η*s = specific viscosity
Φ = volumic coefficient 
viscosity of solutions


η*int = limc→0 (η*s / c)

η*int = intrinsic viscosity
η*s = specific viscosity c = concentration of solution (tending to 0) 
viscosity of solutions


η*int = 2.5 N*A v / M

η*int = intrinsic viscosity
N*A = Avogadro's number (6.02x 10^23 1/mol) v = volume of a single particle M = molar mass 
viscosity of solutions


r = [(3M η*int ) / (10 π N*A)]1/3

r= radius of particle
η*int = intrinsic viscosity N*A = Avogadro's number (6.02x 10^23 1/mol) M = molar mass 
viscosity of solutions


V = π R^4 t Δp / 8ηl

HagenPoiseuille Law
V = volume of fluid η = viscosity R = radius of tube l = length of tube Δp = pressure difference t = time 
viscosity of solutions


η / η*0 = td / t*0 d*0

η / η*0 = relative viscosity
d = density of solution d*0 = density of water (reference solution) t = time of flow of solution t*0 = time of flow of water 
viscosity of solutions


η = A e^(w*a/kT)

η = viscosity
w*a = energy of activation k = Boltzmann constant A = constant characteristic for a given fluid T = absolute temperature 
viscosity of solutions


j = Δm / Δt

j = flux j (kg/s)
Δm= amt. of substance which passes an imaginary surface Δt = time 
diffusion


Δm / Δt = –DS (Δc / Δx)

Fick’s first law of diffusion
Δm / Δt = flux j (kg/s) Δc / Δx = concentration gradient (kg/m^4) D = diffusion coefficient (m^2/s) S = surface area 
diffusion


D = k T/ 6 π r η

StokesEinstein EQ
k – Boltzman’s constant T – absolute temperature r – molecular radius η  viscosity of the medium D = diffusion coefficient 
diffusion


(Δx)^2 = 2Dt

EinsteinSmoluchowski EQ
Δx – avg displacement t – time elapsed since molecule started diffusing D – diffusion coefficient 
diffusion


P = D / Δx

P = membrane permeability constant (m/s)
Δx – avg displacement D – diffusion coefficient 
diffusion


Δm/Δt = PS (c*b – c*a) = PSΔc

Δm/Δt = flux j
P = membrane permeability constant (m/s) S = surface area c*b  c*a = Δc = difference in concentration of 2 solutions 
diffusion


C = 2Sa / VΔx

C= constant characterizing the measuring vessel
V – volume of solution Δx – membrane thickness Sa = active membrane area (the net area of all the membrane’s pores) 
diffusion


c*a = ½ c*0 (1+e^(CDt))
c*b = ½ c*0 (1–e^(CDt)) 
c*a = c of more conc. solution
c*b = c of less conc. solution 
diffusion


ln (c*0 / 2c*a – c*0) = CDt ln (c*0 / c*0 – 2c*b) = CDt
a = CD 
c*0 = initial c of c*a
c*a = c of more conc. solution c*b = c of less conc. solution C = vessel constant D = diffusion coefficient t = time of diffusion a = slope of line 
diffusion


ΔV*e = ΔV*0 + RT lnc*i / zF

Nernst EQ
ΔV*e = electrode potential R = universal gas constant (8.31 J/molK) T = abs temp z = ion valence F = Faraday constant (9.65x104 C/mole) c*i = conc. of metal ions in solution ΔV*0 = standard electrode potential 
EMF of concentration cell


ΔV*e = 0.250V + EMF

ΔV*e = electrode potential of electrode tested
EMF = electromotive force of cell formed by calomel and tested electrode 
EMF of concentration cell


u = v / E

u = mobility
v = net ion transportation velocity of diffusing ions E = intensity of electric field 
EMF of concentration cell


ΔV*d = (u+  u / u+ + u) (RT/zF) ln c*1/c*2

Henderson EQ
ΔV*d = diffusion potential u+ = mobility of cations u = mobility of anions R = universal gas constant (8.31 J/molK) T = abs temp z = ion valence F = Faraday constant (9.65x104 C/mole) c*1/c*2 = solutions of diff. concentrations 
EMF of concentration cell


EMF = ΔV*e1  ΔV*e2

EMF = EMF of concentration cell
ΔV*e1 = electrode potential of electrode immersed in sol of conc. c1 ΔV*e2 = electrode potential of electrode immersed in sol of conc. c2 
EMF of concentration cell


EMF = (RT/zF) ln c*1/c*2

Nernst EQ for EMF of CC
EMF = EMF of concentration cell R = universal gas constant (8.31 J/molK) T = abs temp z = ion valence F = Faraday constant (9.65x104 C/mole) c*1/c*2 = solutions of diff. concentrations 
EMF of concentration cell


ΔV*d = EMF*t  EMF

ΔV*d = diffusion potential
EMF*t = EMF of cc w/ transference EMF = EMF of cc w/out transference 
EMF of concentration cell


P = Σp*i / V

P = polarization vector
pi = dipole moments V = volume of polarized material 
dispersion of e.r. of blood


P = q / S

P = polarization vector
q = charge S = surface of material in electric field 
dispersion of e.r. of blood


τ = 4π η r^3 / kT

τ = relaxation time
η = viscosity r = molecular radius k = Boltzmann constant T = temperature 
dispersion of e.r. of blood


K = R*(10^4) / R*(10^6)

K = polarization coefficient
R*(10^4) = resistance measured when f of flowing current is equal to 10^4 Hz R*(10^6) = resistance measured when f of flowing current is equal to 10^6 Hz 
dispersion of e.r. of blood


i = U/R

Ohm's Law
i = current (amperes) U = electric potential difference (volts) R = resistance (ohms) 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


R = ρ l /S

R = resistance (Ω)
ρ = electrical resistivity (Ωm) l = length of conductor S = cross sectional area of conductor 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


G = 1 / R

G = conductance (Siemens or 1/Ω)
R = resistance (Ω) 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


σ = 1/ρ

σ = electrical conductivity (S/m)
ρ = electrical resistivity (Ωm) 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


i = i*a + i*c = zenS(v*a +v*c)

i*c = cation current
i*a = anion current z = ion valence e = elementary charge n = # of ions of each sign per unit volume S = cross section area equal to electrode area v*a/v*c = anion/cation transportation velocity 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


F*E = qE

F*E = electric force
q = ion charge E = electric field 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


F*S = 6π r η v

Stokes Law
F*S = Stokes force r = radius of molecule η = viscosity v = velocity of molecule 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


F*S = F*E
v = qE / 6π r η 
F*E = electric force
q = ion charge E = electric field F*S = Stokes force r = radius of molecule η = viscosity v = velocity of molecule 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


v = uE

v = transportation velocity
u = ion mobility E = electric field 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


u*A = v*A / E
u*C = v*C / E 
u*A = anion mobility
u*C = cation mobility v*A = anion transportation velocity v*C = cation transportation velocity E = electric field 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


u = ze / 6 π r η

u = mobility
z = ion valence e = elementary charge ze = q = charge r = radius of molecule η = viscosity 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


σ = zen (u*A + u*c)

σ = electrical conductivity
z = ion valence e = elementary charge n = # of ions of each sign per unit volume u*A = anion mobility u*C = cation mobility 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


Z = (R^2 + (R*c)^2)^½

Z = impedance
R = resistance R*c = capacitive reactance 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


R*c = 1/ωC

R*c = capacitive reactance
ω = angular frequency of current C = capacitance 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


φ = V*e / V*t

φ = hematocrit
V*e = volume of erythrocytes V*t = total volume of blood 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


φ = 2 (σ*p  σ) / (σ + 2 σ*p)

Maxwell's formula
φ = hematocrit σ = conductivity of whole blood σ*p = conductivity of plasma 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


σ = 1 / ρ = l / RS = C / R

σ = conductivity
ρ = resistivity l = distance b/n electrodes S = electrode surface area C = l / S = measuring vessel constant 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


C = R σ*r

C = measuring vessel constant
R = resistance σ*r = conductivity of reference solution 
hematocrit determination by maxwell method


ΔV = (RT/zF) ln c*outside/c*inside

Nernst EQ
ΔV = electric potential difference R = universal gas constant z = ion valence F = Faraday constant T = absolute temperature c = concentration of ions 
action potential


ΔV = (RT/zF) ln (P*Na [Na]*out + P*K [K]*out + P*Cl [Cl]*in) / (P*Na [Na]*in + P*K [K]*in + P*Cl [Cl]*out )

Goldman EQ
ΔV = electric potential difference R = universal gas constant z = ion valence F = Faraday constant T = absolute temperature P = membrane permeability for an ion c = concentration of ions inside or outside 
action potential


J = qt / S

J = stimulus strength
q = ion charge S = membrane surface area t = time 
action potential


J = i / S

J = stimulus strength
i = ionic current S = membrane surface area 
action potential


log{Q} = 5.44 + 0.756 x log{m} ± 0.05

Kleiber EQ
Q = heat produced by individual in 24 hrs (BMR) m = body mass 
measurement of metabolic rate


Q = mC*s ΔT

Q = amt. of heat released by object
m = mass of object C*s = specific heat ΔT = diff. in temperature of water 
measurement of metabolic rate


Q/t = V/t d C*s ΔT

Q/t = rate of heat loss (=MR)
V/t = rate of flow of water d = density of water C*s = specific heat ΔT = diff. in temperature of water 
measurement of metabolic rate


P= i^2 R

P = heater's power
i = intensity of current flowing in power compensation R = resistance of heater 
measurement of metabolic rate


Q*p =ΔH

Hess Law
Q*p = amt. of heat exchanged b/n a system in the environment (isobaric p = constant) ΔH = change in enthalpy of the system 
measurement of metabolic rate


Q*V = ΔU

Q*V = amt. of heat released in isovolumic rxn (v=constant)
ΔU = change in internal energy 
measurement of metabolic rate


w = Q*C / V*(O2)

w = energy equivalent of oxygen
Q*C = amt. of heat released if unit volume of oxygen V*O2 is consumed 
measurement of metabolic rate


RQ = V*(CO2) / V*(O2)

RQ = respiratory quotient
V*CO2 = volume of CO2 produced V*O2 = volume of O2 consumed 
measurement of metabolic rate


v = ΔV / t

v = rate of oxygen consumption
ΔV = volume of air consumed t = time of experiment 
measurement of metabolic rate


P= vw = (ΔV / t)(Q / V) = Q/t

P = power (MR) of animal
v = rate of oxygen consumption ΔV = volume of air consumed t = time of experiment w = energy equivalent of oxygen Q = amt. of heat released V = volume of oxygen consumed 
measurement of metabolic rate


F=kΔl

Hook's Law
F = force applied k = spring constant Δl = elongation 
examinations of models of NSM


F=F*0 e^(t/τ)

F = force decay
F*0 = initial applied force during stretching of model τ = stress relaxation time, time req. for force F to reach 1/e of the initial value F*0 t = time (Maxwell) 
examinations of models of NSM


τ = η / E

τ = stress relaxation time
η = viscosity of dashpot E = Young's modulus of spring (Maxwell) 
examinations of models of NSM


ln F = ln F*0 – t/τ
τ = 1/a 
F = force decay
F*0 = initial applied force during stretching of model τ = stress relaxation time, time req. for force F to reach 1/e of the initial value F*0 t = time a = slope (Maxwell) 
examinations of models of NSM


Δl = v*c t

Δl = elongation
v*c = velocity of creep t = time (Maxwell) 
examinations of models of NSM


Δl= Δl*max (1 – e^(t/τ*r))

Δl = elongation
τ*r = retardation time Δl*max = max elongation of model t = time (KelvinVoigt) 
examinations of models of NSM


τ*r = η / E

τ*r = retardation time
η = viscosity of dashpot E = Young's modulus of spring (KelvinVoigt) 
examinations of models of NSM


ln (1  Δl/Δl*max) =  t/τ*r
τ*r = 1/a 
τ*r = retardation time
Δl = elongation Δl*max = max. elongation of model t = time a = slope (KelvinVoigt) 
examinations of models of NSM


D = 1/f

D = optical power (unit D = dioptre)
f = focal length 
retinoscopy


D*s = D*1 + D*2 – dD*1D*2

D*s = optical power of optical system
D*1/D*2 = optical power of 2 lenses d = distance b/n 2 lenses 
retinoscopy


R=1/s*f

R = refractive error
s*f = distance of far point of accommodation 
retinoscopy


R = D*cor.

R = refractive error
D*cor = optical power of corrective lens 
retinoscopy


D*comp. = 1/l

D*comp. = optical power of compensative lens
l = distance b/n the patient's eye and examiner's eye 
retinoscopy


D*cor. = D  D*comp.

D = optical power of lens that makes rapid filling of light in pupil
D*cor = optical power of corrective lens D*comp. = optical power of compensative lens 
retinoscopy


p*m = dcv*m

p*m = acoustic pressure amplitude (Pa)
d = density of medium c = speed of wave propagating in medium v*m = max speed of vibration of the medium molecules affected by acoustic wave 
equal loudness curves


I = E/tS = P/S

I = sound intensity [I] = W/m2 (J/sm2)
E = energy carried by wave S = surface area t = time P = E/t = wave power 
equal loudness curves


I = (p*m)^2 / 2dc

I = sound intensity
p*m = acoustic pressure amplitude d = density of medium c – speed of wave propagating in medium 
equal loudness curves


λ = c / f

λ = wavelength
f = frequency (Hz) 
equal loudness curves


ΔI ∝ I
ΔI / I = constant 
WeberFechner Law
ΔI = smallest noticeable difference in stimulus intensity I = intensity of stimulus already acting 
equal loudness curves


SIL = 10 log*10 I/I*0

SIL = sound intensity level (dB)
I = intensity of sound I*0 = threshold of hearing 10^(12) W/m2 
equal loudness curves


SPL = 10 log*10 p/p*0

SPL = sound pressure level (dB)
p*0 = 20x10^(6) Pa 
equal loudness curves


P*a ∝ P*i ∝ U^2

P*a = power of acoustic wave emmitted by headphones
P*i = power of electric current supplying headphones U = voltage supplied 
equal loudness curves


L*p = 10 log P/P*0
L*p = 20 log U/U*0 
L*p = electric power level (dB)
P = power U*0 = reference voltage 
equal loudness curves


RP = 1/ α*min

RP = resolving power
α*min = min. angular resolution 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


α*min = 1.22λ / D

Rayleigh criterion
D = diameter of aperture (part of lens thru which light passes) α*min = min angular resolution λ = of light used for observation 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


d = λ / 2n(sinu)

Rayleigh criterion for d
d = min. distance b/n 2 points of the object that can be separately detectable by the instrument λ = of light used for observation n = refractive index of medium separating the objective lens and the specimen u = aperture angle 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


A = n(sinu)

Abbe criterion
A = numerical aperture n = refractive index of medium separating the objective lens and the specimen u = aperture angle 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


d = λ / 2A

λ = of light used for observation
A = numerical aperture d = min. distance d b/n 2 points of the object that can be separately detectable by the instrument 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


RP = 1/d = 2A/λ

RP = resolving power
d = min. distance d b/n 2 points of the object that can be separately detectable by the instrument A = numerical aperture λ = of light used for observation 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


m = d*i / d*o

m = magnification
d*i  image height/distance d*o = object height/distance 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


m*t = m*o m*e

m*t = total magnification
m*o = magnification of objective m*e = magnification of eyepiece 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


m*o = d*i/d*o ≈ l/f*o

m*o = magnification of objective
d*i  image height/distance d*o = object height/distance l = distance b/n objective and eyepiece lenses f*o = objective focal length 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


m*e ≈ d*d/f*e

m*e = magnification of eyepiece
d*d = distance of distinct vision f*e = eyepiece focal length 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


m*t ≈ l d*d / f*o f*e

m*t = total magnification
l = distance b/n objective and eyepiece lenses f*o = objective focal length d*d = distance of distinct vision f*e = eyepiece focal length 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


s = N*1 k

s = distance b/n 2 pts on stage micrometer
N*1 = difference b/n 2 readings in units k 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


s = N*2 b

s = distance b/n 2 pts on stage micrometer
N*2 = # of divisions of stage micrometer b/n the 2 pts b = unit of stage micrometer 
measurement of d of erythrocytes by microscope


k = N*2 b / N*1

N*2 = # of divisions of stage micrometer b/n the 2 pts
b = unit of stage micrometer N*1 = difference b/n 2 readings in units k 
measurements of d. of erythrocytes by microscope
