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42 Cards in this Set

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It is a natural science that involves the study of matter and it's movement through space time as well as all the concepts which apply to it including energy and force.


Is an interdisciplinary science which applies the methods of physics and physical chemistry to study biological systems.

Scientific Method

Tests the validity of a physical theory. It uses the methodical approach to compare the implications of the theory with conclusions drawn from experiments and observations carried out to test the theory.


SI unit of luminous flux. Measures the poewer of light perceived by the human eye

Radiant Flux

Measure of the total light emitted.


Si unit of illumination. The amount of illumination when 1 lumen is evenly distributed over an area of one meter square.

Measurement Theory

The process of assigning numerical value to objects and phenomena. It apprehends the kinds of things that can be measured and how the measurements relate to one and other. It also apprehends the process of error in the measurement process.


A quantity which has a value intermediate to the extreme members of a set.

Arithmetic Mean

Point around which numbers balance.

Geometric Mean

Indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers.

Harmonic Mean

When average of rates and ratios is required.


The difference between the true value and an average, estimation or approximation.

Standard Deviation

The measure of the variability of a set of numbers around their arithmetic mean.

Standard Deviation of Error

The measure of the standard deviation of the error of a set.


Stability of a self-regulating process by which biological systems tend to adjust to internal and environmental conditions.


The difference between the largest and smallest members of a set.

Brownian Motion

A dissolved molecule or small particle suspended in a fluid is constantly struck at random by molecules of the fluid in its neighbourhood which results in it wandering erratically.

Fick's Law

The random wandering causes an average drift of particles from a region where they are denser to a region where they are rarer. The mean drift rate is proportional to the density gradient.

Freshwater Teleost

Skin = Water in, ions out

Gills = Water in, ions in and out

Urine = Dilute

Mouth = Food

Marine Teleost

Skin = Water out, ions in

Gills = Water out, ions in and out

Urine = concentrated

Mouth = Food, water, ions


The separation of suspended colloidal particles from dissolved ions and molecules by their unequal rates of diffusion through a semipermiable membrane.

Voltage-Dependent Uniport

Regulated by the difference in voltage across the membrane. DPG

Stress-Dependent Uniport

Regulated by physical pressure on the transporter. DPG

Ligand-Dependent Uniport

Regulated by the binding of a ligand. DPG


Ion and molecule bind to the same side of the transporter before the conformational change and are then transported together across the membrane. Sugar with sodium. DPG


Ion and molecule bind to opposite sides of the transporter and then there is conformational change. One is absorbed while the other is secreted. DPG.

Primary Active Transport

Makes use of the energy from high energy phosphate bonds. ATP.

Secondary Active Transport

Makes use of the electrochemical gradient.

Dynamic Proteins

Have alterable structure - Enzymes

Structural Proteins

Remain the same shape - actin filaments.


Phenomena associated with the presence or flow of electrical charges.

Stationary Charge

Build up of charge on the surface of an object.

Moving Charge

Flow of electric charge along an electric conductor.

Coulomb's Law

Magnitude of electrostatic force between two electric charges.


Device for storing electrical energy. Consists of two conductors in close proximity but isolated from each other.


Electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signalling.

Electro-Mechanical Coupling

Transfer of the electrical signal into the mechanical framework.


Measurement of the electrical output of working skeletal muscle.


Transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over time acquired by the attachment of electrodes to the skin.


Electrical, magnetic, or electromagnetic forces produced by living cells, tissues or organisms.

Ampullae of Lorenzini

Specially modified muscle cells stacked in functional groups and arranged in parallel or serial circuits.


Record of the electrical activity of the brain.