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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Response of biological systems to mechanical forces
-Application of mechanical laws to living systems
Equilibrium of bodies at rest or moving with a constant velocity
Bodies in motion, forces that act to produce motion
-Kinematics and Kinetics
Geometry of motion w/o consideration of forces
Force analysis of bodies in motion
Relationship between forces acting on a system
Mechanical Disturbance or Load
-Produce, halt or change direction of motion
-Magnitude and Direction - Vectors
Amount of Force applied
Angular position of the line
Line of application
angle with body that force is acting on
Moment of Force
Magnitude of force x perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation
Force x Perpendicular distance to center of rotation
Produces rotation
Moment Arm
Shortest distance between axis of rotation and force
Torque =
Force x Moment Arm
-Rotary equivalent of force
-Force produced by a muscle
Amount of matter composing an object
Force acting on an object due to gravity
-Depends on mass of object and strength of gravitational pull
Center of Gravity
-Rigid body behaves as if its entire mass were acting at its COG
-Point at which total mass of body is considered to be concentrated
-Depends on body's shape and mass distribution
-Point of Application of force due to gravity
-Located normally around S2
Line of Gravity
Line extending from COG vertically downward
Vector representation of the weight of a segment
Base of Support
Outline on ground encompassing all parts of the patient which touch the ground
-To be stable the COG must fall in the BOS
To incrase stability
Increase BOS and Lower COG
Tangential force acting between two bodies in contact which opposes motion
First Class Levers
Fulcrum always located between Effort and Resistance
Second Class Levers
Effort Arm is always greater than Resistance Arm
-1st MTP Standing
Third Class Levers
Resistance Arm is always greater than Effort Arm
-Biceps Curl
Mechanical Advantage
-Efficiency of a lever
-Effectiveness of Effort compared to Resistance
Law of Inertia
A body at rest remains at rest, and a body in motion remains in uniform linear motion, unless acted upon by an outside force
Resistance to initiation or change of motion
Law of Acceleration
-Body acted on by a force will accelerate in direction of force in proportion to its mass
Law of Reaction
-For every action there is a reaction, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction
2 or more forces acting in the same plane
2 or more forces acting on the same point
2 or more forces acting along the same line
Parallel Forces
Tensile Forces
-Normal force perpendicular and directed away from surface
Compressive Forces
-Normal forces perpendicular and directed towards the surface
*Forces that are parallel, coplanar but have different point of application
Coplanar Forces
Resultant force is algebraic sum of vectors
Parallel Forces/Force Couples
2 parallel forces equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, but not in same straight line
-Cause rotation of parts around thier anatomical axis
Concurrent Forces
2 forces with same point of application but different direction of action lines
-Coplanar, concurrent, not collinear
Rectangular Components
Muscle force applied to bone (via tendon)
-When muscles contract to produce movement, some force is used for rotation and some is used for compression
Translatory Component
Portion of force applied parallel to lever
Pazss through joint axis, does not produce torque
Tangential component of force