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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All of the chemical processes that occur in cells, including the breakdown of substances to produce energy, the synthesis of substances necessary for life, and excretion of wastes generated by these processes
A roughly constant internal environment despite an ever changing external environment
Fundamental forms of matter and are composed of atoms that cannot be broken down by normal physical means
Smallest units that have the properties of any given element
Atomic Number
The number of protons in an element
Do not have an equal number of protons and electrons. The atom is not neutral, but charged
Nonpolar Atoms
When atoms of a molecule carry no particular charge
Hydrogen Bond
A type of weak chemical bond that forms when a partially positive hydrogen atom is attracted to a partially negative atom
Water loving (mainly polar molecules)
Water fearing (mainly nonpolar molecules)
Chemical Reactions
Changes in the chemical composition of substances
Molecules formed as a result of a chemical reaction
Solutes in a mixture
Tendency of like molecules to stick together
A substance that donates H+ ions to a solution
A substance that accepts H+ ions
Produced with the reaction of an acid and a base
pH scale
A measure of the relative amounts of these ions in a solution
Organic Chemistry
The branch of chemistry that is concerned with complex carbon-containing molecules
Electron Shell
Closest to the nucleus and the electrons there have the lowest energy
Valence Shell
An atoms outermost shell
Covalent Bond
When atoms share electrons to complete their valence shell
Ionic Bonds
Form between charged atoms attracted to each other by similar, opposite charges
Made up of chains and rings of carbon and hydrogen
Large organic molecules made of many subunits, that are known to be produced only by living organisms
Sugars that provide a major source of energy for daily activities
Polymers of sugar monomers
Important structural components of cells. Integral to the structure of the cell membranes and make up half the dry weight of most cells
Accelerate and help regulate all the chemical reactions that help build up and break down molecules inside cells
Amino Acids
Monomer subunits
Partially or entirely hydrophobic organic molecules made primarily of hydrocarbons
3-carbon glycerol molecule with up to 3 long hydrocarbon chains attached to it
Composed of 4 fused carbon containing rings
Similar to fats except each glycerol molecule is attached to 2 fatty acid tails
Long strings of monomers that make up Nucleic acids
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Nucleic acid that helps cells synthesize proteins
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Nucleic acid that serves as the primary storage of genetic information
Nitrogenous bases
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C). Form bonds with each other across the width of the helix
Base-pairing rule
A pairs with T; G pairs with C
A and G on the DNA helix, double ringed structures
C and T are single ring structures on the helix and are called
Sugar-phosphate backbone
Each strand of helix consists of a series of sugars and phosphates alternating along the length of the helix
James Watson and Francis Crick
Determined the structure of DNA
Fundamental structural unit of life on Earth, separated from its environment by a membrane and sometimes an external wall
Have no nucleus. Do not contain any membrane bound internal compartments. Have a cell wall
Have a nucleus. Have internal structures with specialized skills called organelles
Plasma Membrane
Defines the outer boundary of each cell, isolates the cell's content from the environment, and serves as a semipermeable barrier determining which nutrients are allowed in and out of the cell
Phospholipid Bilayer
A cluster in which the tails of the phospholipids interact with themselves and exclude water while the heads maximize their exposure to the surrounding water both inside and outside the membrane
Cell membranes allow some substances to cross and prevent others from crossing
Includes the cytosol and organelles
Help the cells convert food energy into a form usable by cells called ATP
Use energy from sunlight to make sugars
Help break down substances
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An extensive membranous organelle that can be studded with ribosomes and involved in protein synthesis (rough ER) or tubular in shape and involved in lipid synthesis (smooth ER)
Involved in moving genetic material around when a cell divides
Help maintain the cell shape
Central Vacuole
Stores water, sugars, and pigments
Golgi apparatus
Is a membranous structure where proteins that are assembled on the membranes of the rough ER can be modified and sorted
Types of living organisms present on Earth today
Theory of Evolution
The theory that all organisms on Earth today are descendants of a single ancestor that arose in the distant past
Another name for the substances in food that provide structural materials or energy
Nutrients that are required in large amounts. (water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
A decrease below the body's required water level
Complex Carbohydrates
Multisubunit sugars composed of many different branching chains of sugar monomers. (found in veggies, breads, legumes, and pasta)
Processed food
A food that has undergone extensive refinement and, in doing so, has been stripped of much of it's nutritional value
Whole Foods
Foods that have not been stripped of their nutritional value by processing
Essential Amino Acids
The amino acids your body cannot synthesize. Must be supplied by the foods you eat
Complete Proteins
Contain all the essential amino acids your body needs
Essential fatty acids
Must be obtained from the diet. Fatty acids that cannot be synthesized
Saturated Fat
When the carbons of a fatty acid are bound to as many hydrogens as possible
Unsaturated Fat
When there are carbon-to-carbon double bonds and the fatty acid is not saturated in hydrogens
Fatty acids that contain many unsaturated carbons
When hydrogen atoms are added to unsaturated fats by combining hydrogen gas with vegetable oils under pressure. Increases the level of saturation in a fat
Trans fats
Produced by incomplete hydrogenation
Nutrients that are essential in minute amounts, such as vitamins and minerals
Molecules that help enzymes and thus speed up the body's chemical reactions
Thought to play a role in the prevention of many diseases, including cancer
Free Radicals
Can damage cell membranes and DNA
Movement of molecules from where they are in high concentration to where they are in low concentration
Passive Transport
When substances diffuse across the plasma membrane
A form of passive transport that moves water across the membrane
Occurs when a membrane bound vesicle, carrying some substance, fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the exterior of the cell
Occurs when a substance is brought into the cell by a vesicle pinching the plasma membrane inward
Facilitated Diffusion
The diffusion of molecules assisted by substrate specific proteins
Active Transport
Moves substances across their concentration gradient and requires ATP energy to do so