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64 Cards in this Set

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Smooth ER

Manufacture of lipids

Smooth ER in muscle cells

Stores intracellular calcium and releases it for muscle contraction

Smooth ER in liver

Contains enzymes that break down lipids soluble toxins. AKA detoxifying enzymes. And convert them to a form that can be excreted by the body

Rough ER

Is covered with numerous ribosomes. Makes proteins that need to go to a specific destination

Golgi complex (aka golgi apparatus)

Ogligosaccharides to proteins by Golgi enzymes

Oligosaccharides

Branched carbohydrate structures that modify proteins

Glycoproteins

Proteins Modified by oligosaccharides

Transport vesicles

Membrane enclosed compartments that ship proteins to and from the Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes and peroxisomes

Both organelles are involved with the degradation or breakdown of different types of macromolecules

Peroxisomes

Chemical reactions that generate potentially harmful substances are isolated in here to prevent damage to the cell

Lysosomes

Contain hydrolase enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis reactions to break down a wide variety of biological macromolecules

Hydrolase

Enzyme in lysosome that break down covalent bonds holding the monomers subunits of macromolecules, making the monomers available for reuse by cell

Mitochondria

Present in all eukaryotic cells the site of energy transformation known as aerobic cellular respiration

Mitochondrial Matrix

The second compartment. It contains mitochondria DNA and ribosomes

Aerobic cellular respiration

In mitochondria. Completes breakdown of macromolecules like sugar, proteins, and fats using the energy to synthesize ATP

Chloroplasts

Found in plant cells and carry out photosynthesis

Vacuole

Barge, water filled. Provide structural rigidity. General term to refer to eukaryotic cellular compartments

Storage vacuoles

In plant cells for specific organic compounds and ions

Turgor pressure

The internal structural rigidity that vacuoles provide

Food vacuole

An intracellular compartment formed by phagocytosis

Vacuoles in protists

Regulate osmotic pressure and cell by taking on excess water from cytoplasm and expelling it from the cell

Tight junctions and anchoring Junctions

Keep cells together to form specialized tissues in multicellular organisms

Gap Junctions

Pores in animals

Plasmodesmata

Pores in plants

Cilia

Shorter than flagella. Extracellular structure that allows cell to move in environment. And animals most are used to spread extracellular materials across surfaces. Like mucus lining a respiratory system. And all other cell types nonmobile cilia are important for sensory receptions

Flagella

Found on sperm

Cytoskeletal proteins

Responsible for the separation and movement of copied chromosomes. A vast network of long fibers. Three main classes. Maintain cell shape and provide structural support to the cell

Microtubules

Largest cytoskeletal fibers. Hollow cylinders formed by thousands of individual tubulin proteins. Critical for directed transport of material within cells

Motor proteins

Transport proteins that bind to Cellular cargos and walk them down the microtubules to their destination

Microfilaments

Thinnest cytoskeletal fibers made up of Twisted strands of actin proteins. Responsible for a dynamic shape changes exhibited by some cell types example muscles

Intermediate filaments

Between microtubules and microfilaments in size

Electron microscope

Focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen onto its surface

Scanning electron microscope

Used to study the detailed architecture of cells surfaces. Surface is covered with gold

Transmission electron microscope

To study internal cell structure. Section is stained with atoms of heavy metals

Cytosol

Makes up the jelly liquid in cytoplasm

Cellular metabolism

Chemical reactions in cells

Chromatin

a complex of proteins and DNA in the nucleus

Stroma

Thick fluid inside chloroplast. Contain chloroplast DNA and ribosomes and enzymes

Thylakoids

A network of interconnected sacs in the chloroplast. Solar panels

Granum

A stack of thylakoids

Endosymbiotic Theory

Mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that lived within larger cells

Integrins

Proteins on the membrane that the ECM attaches to

Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

Elaborate layer that helps hold cells together in tissues and protects and supports the membrane

Plasmodesmata

Channels that connect adjacent plant cells

Tight junctions

In animal cells prevent leakage of fluid across a layer of cells

Anchoring Junctions

In animal cells fasten cells together in strong sheets

Gap Junctions

Aki communicating Junctions. Channels that allows small molecules to flow through protein lined pores between cells and animal cells

When did life first arise on Earth?

3.8 billion years ago

How old are the oldest fossils

3.5 billion years

What types of cells early life?

Strictly prokaryote

Environment in early life?

No oxygen. Ammonia, molecular hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide

What species started photosynthesis?

Cyanobacteria

Stromatolites

Layered rocks that huge mats of early organisms made. They are still here today

Anaerobic organisms

Cells that cannot live with oxygen present

What caused the first mass extinction?

The cyanobacteria produce oxygen increasingly with photosynthesis, killing anaerobic cells

How did some anaerobic cells survive?

Lived in oxygen lacking environments. Swampy marshes, soil

Aerobic organisms

Have mutations that allow them to break down toxic byproducts of oxygen

Symbiosis

A mutually beneficial relationship between two living organisms

Endosymbiosis

One cell lives in a host cell and both benefit

Binary fission

The process by which prokaryotes divide

Why are cells small?

It would take too long to divide if they were bigger. The interior volume would grow at a faster rate than the membrane

Macro-evolution

Evolutionary change above the species level

The four eons of geological time

Hadean, archaean, proterozoic, and phanerozoic

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