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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The Cell Cycle

Binary Fission

Asexual Reproduction

Process in Prokaryotes

Genetically Identical

Single Circular Chromosome Replicated


"Prokaryotic cells arise through the division of existing ones"

Generation Time

The time required for a bacterial cell to divide or a population of bacterial cells to double.

Mitosis (2)



- cell contents duplicated

- metabolic changes (to prepare for cell division)

- cell growth and development

G1 Checkpoint

Checks: - cell size and sufficient nutrients

If all good then go signal initiated

Mitosis (3)

Synthesis Stage

- replication of DNA (Human = 46 somatic (body cells))

- each chromosome now consists of two sister chromatids

Mitosis (4)


- metabolic changes assemble the cytoplasmic materials necessary for mitosis and cytokinesis

- cell checks duplicated material for error and then repairs them

- rapid cell growth and protein synthesis

G2 Checkpoint

Checks: cell size, replication has been successful, proteins required have been synthesised - if all good then go

Mitosis (5)

Prophase - occupies about 1/2 Mitosis


- DNA condenses into distinct chromosomes

- nuclear membrane breaks down

- centrosome duplicates itself and migrates to opposite ends of cells


- chromosomes appear as two chromatids held by centromere

- spindle fibres form the mitotic spindle

Mitosis (6)


- spindle fibres attach to and organise the chromosomes

- chromosomes align themselves along the equator

- some spindle fibres span the cell

Metaphase Checkpoint

- pass if all chromosomes are attached to mitotic spindle

Mitosis (7)

Anaphase - shortest of Mitosis

- spindle fibres shorten or lengthen

- centromeres divide and sister chromatids pull apart


- two new nuclei form and furrow forms in midline


- division of cytoplasm

- two separate daughter cells

Mitosis (1)

- an existing cell (parent cell) divides into two daughter cells

- no change in chromosome number

- daughter cells identical to parent cell

- occurs in tissues

Mitosis (8)

Plant Propogation

Vegetative Propagation

- produces new, genetically identical individuals (clones) without the need for seeds or spores

- plants spread quickly when conditions are favourable

- enable successful varieties to be propagated indefinitely

Vegetative Structures (1)

Tubers - Potatoes (stem), Dahlias (root)

- swollen part of underground stem or root - modified for food storage

- can give rise to new individuals

Bulbs - Daffodils

- a shoot compressed into a shortened form

- fleshy storage leaves are attached to a stem plate and form concentric circles around growing tip

- new roots form from bottom stem

Vegetative Structures (2)

Corm - Cyclamen, Crocus

- food stored in stem tissue

- look like bulbs except in centre is a mass of homogeneous tissue

Rhizomes - Ginger

- food stored in horizontal underground stem

- thick fleshy or woody

-bear nodes with scale or foliage leaves and buds

- growth occurs at buds or nearby nodes

Propagating from Cuttings

Cuttings - sections of parent plants which are removed and grown as new individuals (clones)

- plant hormone auxin accumulates at the base of the stem triggering the formation of roots

- adding synthetic auxins to the end of the cutting promotes greater root development

Grafting - Apple Trees

- the joining of the tissues of one plant to another (usually a variety of the same species)

- important horticultural technique (fruit plants)

- plant can have characteristics not full present in either parent plant

- can produce plants with desirable characteristics quickly without having to breed

Grafting - Process


- the propagation of multiple plants from one piece of plant tissue

- used for rapid multiplication of commercially important plant varieties with superior genotypes

- used for recovery for endangered species

- differentiated plant cells are totipotent

- very labour intensive

- affected by factors - composition of cultural media, selection of original plant material, hormone levels, lighting and temperature


- asexual reproductive units produced for dispersal

- usually asexual and haploid

- common in fungi


- bud grafting

- used to convert one plant (rootstock) into another plant type with desirable characteristics

- new individual develops from some generative anatomical point of the parent organism

Meiosis (1)

- result in 4 genetically unique daughter cells

- production of gametes - egg and sperm (makes gamete cells)

- gametes are haploid (n) (23) because they contain half the DNA of a normal body cell


ANIMALS - ovaries and testies

PLANTS - ovary and anther

Meiosis (2) - How it occurs


Meiosis (3)

2 Divisions - first reduction division, second same as mitosis

Meiosis 1

- halves the number of chromosomes (separates the pairs of homologous chromosomes)

Meiosis 2

- sister chromatids are split

Meiosis (4) - Process


- cell between periods of meiosis

- cell grows and carries out required functions

- chromosome material is loosely coiled 'threads' called chromatin

- centriole duplicates itself

- cell has 4 copies of each DNA molecule (2 in each chromosome)

Meiosis 1 (1)

Prophase 1

- a perfect replica of DNA molecule within each chromosome is created

- two identical chromosomes from mother and two from father

- individual replicated chromosomes become visible

- spindle fibres begin to form

Meiosis 1 (2)

Metaphase 1

- line up on spindle at equator in homologous pairs (spindle fibres attach to centromere)

- orientation on equator is random

Anaphase 1

- chromosomes move apart from one another along the spindle fibre to opposite ends - still double stranded and has two sister chromatids

- separates homologous chromosomes into two different cells so each will have only one member of homologous pair (haploid)

Meiosis 1 (3)

Telophase 1

- spindle fibre disintegrates


- cell splits *TWO CELLS CREATED*

- half the number of chromosomes compared to original

Meiosis 2

- exactly the same as mitosis

- resulting cells have the same number of chromosomes as original cell

Meiosis 2 (1)

Prophase 2

- two cells with two chromosomes