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39 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis

The process by which cells and organisms maintain a constant balance

Cell respiration

Occurs in all living organisms




Breaking down Glucose to make ATP




Occurs in the mitochrondria

Xylem vessels

Transport water to leaves in the shoot system

Phloem vessels

Transport sugars and nutrients throughout the plant

Cell Cycle

Mitosis > G1 > S Phase > G2

G1 Phase

Cell prepares to copy DNA

S Phase

Copying of DNA


Chromosomes duplicated

G2 Phase

Time between DNA Synthesis and mitosis


Cell continues growing


Needed proteins produced

M Phase

Cell growth stopped


Cells energy used to create 2 daughter cells

Cytokinesis

Occurs after chromosomes separate




Forms 2 identical daughter cells



DNA Replication

Copied during S phase of cell cycle




Half new DNA half old




Helicase enzyme unwinds and separates the DNA




DNA polymerase adds free nucleotides to the single DNA Strands




2 Identical strands created



Adenine binds with Thymine, Guanine binds with Cytosine

DNA Components

Made of nucleotides




Phosphate group


Deoxyribose sugar


Nitrogen base




ATCG




Packaged in chromosomes

Point Mutation

Substitution - When one base pair is replaced


ex/ CUU Changes to CUA





Frameshift Mutation

Only one letter added or subtracted




Insertion - Base pair is added


Ex TACGCA changes to TACAGCA




Deletion - Base pair is removed

Transcription

Making RNA from DNA




Occurs in nucleus




Adenine- Uracil, Cytosine- Guanine




Ex/ ATC changes to UAG

Types of RNA

mRNA- messenger blueprint, made in nucleus, sets of 3 nitrogen bases called codons




tRNA- transfer RNA, carries amino acids to the ribosomes, 3 nitrogen bases called anticodons




rRNA - ribosomal, makes up ribosomes

Translation

Process of building a protein by matching codons in mRNA to anticodons in tRNA




Protein will continue to be created until the mRNA reaches a stop codon




Amino acid chain called a protein

Classification levels from largest to smallest

Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order
Family


Genus


Species




(King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup)

Punctuated Equilibrium

Little or no change over a long period followed by a sudden change

Phenotype

What the organism looks like (purple, white)

Genotype

Gene combination (BB,Bb,bb) etc

Dihybrid Cross

Cross of 2 traits




Gametes will be combination of 2 alleles

Haploid

cell has only 1 set of chromosomes

Evolutionary Mechanisms

Genetic Drift - Change in gene pool caused by chance ex(flood kills off 95% of population)




Gene Flow - Change in gene pool caused by organisms moving around




Mutation - Change in gene pool caused by genetic mutations in gamete cells




Recombination - Variation due to crossing over of gene during meiosis

Natural Selection and Population Change

Stabilizing selection- extreme phenotypes at a disadvantage




Directional selection - a particular phenotype has an advantage




Disruptive selection - when extreme phenotypes have an advanta

Order used to find amino acids

DNA triplet to mRNA codon (opposite bases of DNA triplet substituting u for t) to tRNA anti codon (opposite of mRNA codon again using u for t)

mRNA codon codes for amino acids

Interphase

resting tage between divisions, DNA replicated
Prophase

Replicated chromosomes pair together

Metaphase

Chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell

Anaphase

Chromosomes move away from eachother to opposite sides of the cell

Telophase

The cell divides into 2 individual cells

Hybrid

created when 2 pure breads are crossed

gene

genetic info found on chromosomes

allele

different forms of a particular gene

gamete

reproductive cell: egg or sperm

Female part of a flower

pistil

Male part of a flower

Stamen

Cuticle

waxy covering of the leaf

mesophyll

the middle layer of cells