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99 Cards in this Set

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What do all organisms have in common that allow genetic engineering to be possible?

Genetic Code

Describe gene knockout organisms and give an example

Gene Knockout- genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organisms genes are prevented from being expressed


Example- A mouse's gene which controlled food distribution was turned off and the mice became obese


What is a clone?

A genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism

Describe how gel electrophoresis works.

An electrical current is used to separate a mixture of DNA fragments from each other

What does the SIZE of bands represent in gel electrophoresis?

It represents the distance it travels through a gel in a certain period of time

What is the function of PCR? What is produced?

PCR is the process of DNA replication that produces millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence

Define genomics

The study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species

Define adaptation. What is an advantage of an adaptation?

An adaptation is a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment. The advantage is that you will more likely survive and reproduce more

Define population and give an example

A population is all the individuals of a species that live in an area.


Example- tortoises of the Galapagos Islands

Define vestigial structure and give 2 examples

A vestigial structure are organs that you have that have no use anymore


Examples- human appendix and wings of an ostrich

What observations did Charles Darwin make about finches in the Galapagos Islands?

A drought reduced the amount of the small, soft seeds that finches preffered. However there were still large seeds and the large-beaked finches survived while the ones that couldn't open those seeds died. He saw that as the environment changed, different traits became beneficial.


Name the scientist who developed a classification for organisms

Linnaeus

What is the difference between uniformitarianism and catastrophism?

Catastrophism is the theory that states that natural disasters such as floods have happened often during Earth's long history


Uniformitarianism proposes geological processes that shape Earth are uniform through time

Give an example of catastrophism

A flood or volcanic eruption

What is the difference beyween homologous structures and analogous structures?

Homologous structures are features that have the same structure but different functions


Analogous structures are structures that perform a similar function but come from different ancestors

Modern dogs evolves from wolves due to humans breeding particular canines with desired traits. What is the name of this process?

Artificial selection

Write a detailed description of natural selection

There is a population of birds in an area and they eat small nuts. A drought stops these nuts for growing and they are forced to eat a larger harder to break nut. The birds with the a larger beak are able to break the nuts so they survive while the birds with small beaks that can't break these nuts die off. The birds with favorable traits survive

Natural selection results in change over time by acting on traits that are ________.

Beneficial mutations

Define biogeography

The study of the distribution of organisms around the world

What is the term for structures that were useful to ancestors.

Vestigal structure

Name the theory that ties the fields of biology and geology together

Biogeography

Give a detailed description of a gene pool

A gene pool is the combined alleles of all the organisms in a population


In a population of 10 frogs, 4 could have green skin while 6 could have browns skin. The combination of both these types of frogs is a gene pool

List the two main sources of genetic variation

Gene Flow and Genetic Drift

List the 3 types of selection

Directional selection


Stabilizing selection


Disruptive selection

Which type of selection favors intermediate phenotypes?

Stabilizing Selection

Which type of selection favors both extremes?

Disruptive Selection

Which type of selection favors only one extreme?

Directional Selection

Describe genetic drift

Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population

Give an example of the bottleneck effect

A group of birds are flying over the ocean when a storm kills 90% of them ☺

Define all of the following: founder effect, microevolution, and gene flow

Founder effect: the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors


Microevolution: evolutionary change with a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period


Gene flow: the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another

Which type of reproductive isolation occurs when the timing of reproduction is different between two populations?

Temporal isolation

The Hardy-Weinberg concept assumes that ________ is NOT occuring

mutation, natural selection, and migration

Define coevolution and give two examples

Process in which two or more species evolve in response to each other


Ex: plants and bugs

What is the difference beyween divergent and convergent evolution?

Divergent evolution: evolution of one or more closely related species into different species


Convergent Evolution: evolution towards towards similar characteristics in unrelated species

Define Evolutionary tree

Model that shows how living things are related

Define Linnaean taxonomy

Science of classifying and naming organisms

Define Cladogram

Diagram that displays proposed evolutionary relationships among a group of species

Define Molecular clock

Theoretical clock that uses the rate of mutation to measure evolutionary time

Define Binomial nomenclature

Naming system in which each species is given a two-part scientific name in latin

List all the kingdoms. Which Kingdom is the most abundant on earth?

Plants, Animals, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Fungi


Most abundant is animal

List all the Linnaean taxonomy in the correct order from general to specific

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

What is the purpose of molecular clocks?

Molecular clocks measure evolutionary time, using mutation rates

Define Clade

Group of organisms that share certain traits derived from a common ancestor

Define Outgroup

Group of species that shares no derived characteristics with the other groups being studied

Define Derived character

Trait that differs in structure or function from that found in constructing cladograms

In the 1860s, all single-celled organisms were placed in their own kingdom called _____.

Bacteria

List the taxonomy of humans from domain to species

Bacteria, Arcadia, Eukarya

List the infectious organisms from smallest to largest: virus, prion, bacteria, and viroid

Bacteria, virus, viroid, prion

The genetic material of a virus consists of ______ or ______.

DNA/RNA

List the three shapes of bacteria

Enveloped, helical, polyhedral

Is polyhedral the shape of a capsid of a virus or the outer membrane of a bacteria?

The shape of a capsid

Define for describe a viral capsid

A capsid is a protein shell that surrounds a virus

What is the difference between a prion and a viroid?

Prion: infectious agent that consists of a protein fragment that can cause other proteins to fold incorrectly



Viroid: infectious particles made of single-stranded RNA without a protein coat, that almost always use as plants as their host

How does the DNA of a bacteriophage enter a host cell?

Tail and spikes attached the virus to the host cell

What is the difference between lytic infection versus lysogenic infection?

Lytic infection: infectious pathway of a virus in which host cells are destroyed


Lysogenic infection: infectious pathway of a virus in which host cells are not immediately destroyed

What is the difference between a bacterial plasmid and a prophage?

Plasmid: Circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome



Prophage: DNA of a bacteriophage inserted into a host of DNA

Define feedback

Information that is compared with a set of ideal values and aids with maintaining homeostasis

Define differentiation

Process by which committed cells acquire the structures and functions of highly specialized cells

Define determination

Process by which stem cells become committed to develop into only one type of cell

Define thermoregulation

Process of the body maintaining a stable internal temperature under various conditions

Name the type of cell that can become any type of cell

Stem cell

What is the simplest level of organization in the body?

Cell

List the order of the hierarchy of organization in the body?

Cell, tissue, organ, organ systems, organisms

What do hormones and neurotransmitters have in common?

Both have chemical signals

What is the difference between hormones and neurotransmitters?

Hormone: chemical signal that is produced in one part of an organism and affects cell activity in another part



Neurotransmitter: chemical that transmits a nervous system's signal across the synapse

Define all of the following terms: organisms, tissues, cells, organs

Organism: any individual living thing


Tissue: a group of cells that work together to perform a similar function


Cell: basic unit of life


Organs: group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions

Which type of cell goes through determination process?

Stem cell

What is the difference between positive and negative feedback?

Positive feedback: control system in which sensory information causes the body to increase the rate of change away from homeostasis Negative feedback: control system for homeostasis that adjust the body's conditions when the conditions vary from the ideal




Negative feedback: control system for homeostasis that adjust the body's conditions when the conditions vary from the ideal

What is a specialized cell?

First level of organization in a multicellular organism

Name 5 organ systems of the body and their functions

Digestive: breaks down and absorbs nutrients - eliminates waste


Endocrine: influences growth, development, and metabolism


Excretory: eliminates waste


Immune: protects body against disease Respiratory: brings in oxygen for cells


Respiratory: brings in oxygen for cells

Describe a reflex

A reflex is an action in response to a stimulus without thought

How does the liver help to regulate glucose levels in the blood?

The liver stores nutrients in its tissue. When you need energy, glycocen is converted into glucose to keep glucose levels stable in the blood

Define apoptosis

Programmed cell death

On a hot day, what is observable evidence that thermoregulation is occurring?

Sweating

Define thermoregulation and give an example

Thermoregulation is the process of maintaining a steady body temperature under a variety of conditions


Ex: sweat

What is the difference between determination and differentiation?

Most stem cells become committed to develop into only one type of cell while differentiation is a process by which committed cells aquire the structure and functions of highly specialized cell

Which type of cell goes through the determination process ?

Stem cells

List the level of organization of the body from the simplest level to the most complex

Cells ---> Tissues ---> Organs ---> Organ Systems ---> Organism

Draw a neuron and list all the parts and functions of a neuron

Define action potential

An action potential is the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.

The nervous system and the endocrine system have the same basic functions. Determine the similar function

Controls parts of the body

Describe a reflex and its pass within the nervous system. Do messages travel to the brain during a reflex?

Reflex - involuntary movements controlled by spinal cord


No they don't

What is the difference between a sensory neuron, interneuron, and a motor neuron

Sensory neuron - detects stimuli and transmits signals to the brain and spinal cord


Interneuron - receives signals from sensory neurons and relays them


Motor neuron - passes messages from nervous system to other tissues in the body, such as muscles

Name the type of blood vessel that carries blood towards the heart

Veins

What is the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation?

Pulmonary circulation goes from the heart to the lungs while systemic circulation goes from the heart to the rest of the body

What is the function of red blood cells

Red blood cells pick up oxygen from the lungs to deliver to the rest of the body

What is the function of white blood cells?

White blood cells help body fight off against infection and remove foreign materials

Describe the major function of the lymphatic system

Collects excess fluid that leaks out of the blood capillaries into the area between the cells

What is the difference between B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes?

B lymphocytes - produce proteins that inactivate pathogens that have not yet infected a body cell



T lymphocytes destroy body cells that are infected with a pathogen

Why do B cells shoot antibodies at pathogens?

To clump them together so it would be easier for the phagocytes to engulf them

Which type of cells does an autoimmune disease attack, healthy or non-healthy cells?

Healthy

List the three ways in which HIV is spread

Sexual intercourse


Blood


Infected needles

What is the difference between a population and the community?

A population is a group of same species that live together in one area while a community is a group of different species that live together in one area

Define biodiversity

The assortment and variety of living things in an ecosystem

Which level of the energy pyramid provides most of the energy in an ecosystem?

Producers

What is a producer?

An organism that gets their energy from nonliving resources

Define ecology

The study of interactions among living things and and their surroundings

What is the function of decomposers?

To break down organic matter into simpler compounds

What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?

Food chain - sequence that links species by their feeding relationships


Food web - model that shows complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem