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116 Cards in this Set

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Which organelle is important in detoxification and lipid synthesis?

Smooth ER

The following is a list of several levels of organization that make up the human body. Put them in order from the smallest to the largest.

chemical (e.g. DNA, proteins), cell, tissue, organ, system

Which organelle will be numerous in a macrophage?

lysosomes

Accessory organs of the integumentary system include all the following EXCEPT

sebaceous glands


nails


epidermis


sweat glands


hair follicles

Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage, and blood formation?

Skeletal

Blood is a connective tissue because

It is made of cells scattered in a fluid matrix and it is circulating to connect different parts of the body

Which cell is specialised for movement of food through the digestive tract?

smooth muscle cell with contractile proteins

The layer of skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibres responsible for strength of the skin is

dermis

Why is simple squamous epithelium suitable for lining the air sacs in the lungs?

thin and flat for diffusion of gases



Which organelle will be numerous in sperm cells?

mitochondria

The main chemical in the structure of the cell membrane is

phospholipid

The cell membrane is.......

selectively permeable

Which organelle is important in detoxification and lipid synthesis?

Smooth ER

Yeast is an example of a facultative anaerobe. This means that

it can live in the presence or absence of oxygen

What is one major difference between eukaryotic cells (ECs) and prokaryotic cells (PCs)?

PCs have no membrane-bound nucleus

With regards to homeostasis 'negative feedback' refers to:

The body opposing the original stimulus, bringing the changed parameter back to 'normal values'

Failure of homeostatic mechanisms result in

disease

Normal flora can be isolated from

large intestines

Parenteral drug administration refers to drugs given by:

injection

Osmosis involves:

- Passive diffusion of water


- A concentration gradient for water


- A selectively permeable membrane

The stages of pharmacokinetics are, in order:

absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

A new antibiotic, bacteriocillin, works by interfering with a bacteria-specific metabolic process. It will work against

all bacteria

Which of the following is NOT a function of neuroglia?

a. support


b. phagocytosis


c. maintenance of blood-brain barrier


d. memory


e. secretion of cerebrospinal fluid

Which of the following best describes the actions of a drug that acts as an agonist?

Binds to and activates a receptor

Compared with specific defences, non-specific defences:

protect against different kinds of pathogens

Which of the following provides specific immunity?

cell-mediated immunity

Cells that assist in the co-ordination of the immune response are

helper T cells

The primary function of the lymphatic system is:

defending against pathogens and cancer cells

Neurotransmitters ready for release are stored in

presynaptic vesicles

Compared to blood capillaries, lymphatic capillaries:

- are more porousb.


- start as blind ended tubesc


- allow fluid to enter, but not to leaved


- permit entry of cells and antigens

Lymphocytes


a. respond to specific antigens


b. destroy red blood cells


c. decrease in number during an infection


d. are all actively phagocytic


e. are found primarily in bone marrow

a. respond to specific antigens


b. destroy red blood cells


c. decrease in number during an infection


d. are all actively phagocytic


e. are found primarily in bone marrow

The respiratory rhythmicity centre is located in the

medulla oblongata

In general the nervous system does all the following EXCEPT

regenerates by mitosis neurons lost from head injury or stroke

One statement about the sodium potassium pump is FALSE. Which one?


a. It uses ATP to move ions from low concentration to high concentration.


b. It is a good example of active transport.


c. It moves sodium ions from inside the cell to outside the cell.


d. It moves potassium ions from inside the cell to outside the cell.


e. It helps to return the nerve fiber to resting membrane potential.

a. It uses ATP to move ions from low concentration to high concentration.


b. It is a good example of active transport.


c. It moves sodium ions from inside the cell to outside the cell.


d. It moves potassium ions from inside the cell to outside the cell.


e. It helps to return the nerve fiber to resting membrane potential.

The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the

longitudinal fissure

The visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe

What structure contains many blood vessels and adheres tightly to the surface of the brain?

a. arachnoid


b. dura mater


c. pia mater


d. cranial plexus


e. choroid plexus

The _____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "fright and flight”.

sympathetic

Which of the following statements about the nervous system is true?

Grey matter is made up of unmyelinated fibres.

The period during an action potential when potassium ions leave the axon is known as

repolarisation

Which of the following signs/symptoms will clearly show that a person has damaged the cerebellum?

he falls too often

Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after

acetylcholine binds to specific receptors in the skeletal muscle fibre membrane

The advantage of having many nuclei in a skeletal muscle fibre is

The ability to produce large amounts of the muscle proteins needed for growth and repair.

Which of the following statements about the endocrine system is INCORRECT?

a. chemical changes in the blood can trigger hormone release.


b. there is a special portal blood system linking the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary glands.


c. lipid hormones can exert their action without binding to a receptor.


d. thryroid hormone is able to influence a target cell's metabolic rate


e. 'synergistic' hormones enhance each other's effects.

The trabeculae of spongy bone

are organized in a criss-cross pattern, along stress lines.

Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?

The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.

Which of the following statements about bone is correct?

compact bone is good at resisting force applied from one direction, because the osteons run parallel to each other

A new hormone (hormone X) has been discovered; the release of hormone X is seen to increase when levels of phosphorous in the blood increase above normal limits. Assuming this new hormone is involved in a typical negative feedback loop, which of the following responses is most likely to occur following release of hormone X?

phosphorus excretion from the body into the urine increases.

Which of the following is a function of synovial fluid?

provides nutrients


b. lubrication


c. removes wastes


d. A and B are both functions of synovial fluid.


e. all of A, B and C are functions of synovial fluid.

The repeating unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the

Sarcomere.

Which of the following statements about homeostasis of glucose is correct?

a. increased adrenaline release would be expected to lead to increased glucose in the blood.


b. insulin and glucagon have a 'synergistic' relationship.


c. insulin will be released between meals, while you are fasting.


d. insulin exerts its action by binding to glucose and removing it from circulation.


e. cortisol functions to guard you against excessively high blood glucose.

If an individual carries a pair of alleles that are the same, the individual is '___________' for the trait.

Homozygous

If 2 healthy parents have a daughter suffering from cystic fibrosis, the most probable conclusion is that:

both parents are heterozygous carriers

Which hormone is most important in influencing metabolism?

thryroid hormone

Functions of the stomach include all of the following, except


a. Storage of ingested food.


b. Denaturation of proteins.


c. Initiation of protein digestion.


d. Absorption of triglycerides.


e. Mechanical breakdown of food.

d. Absorption of triglycerides.

In an autosomal dominant condition, what is the probability that two heterozygotes will have a normal child (i.e. unaffected by the condition)

0.25

In order for glycolysis to proceed, which of the following need not be present?

oxygen

The formation of glucose from glycogen is

Glycogenolysis

All of the following are true of the catabolic break-down of fatty acids, except that


a. It mostly occurs in the mitochondria.


b. it cannot be used to provide large amounts of ATP quickly.


c. lipids are converted into glycogen molecules.


d. it produces ketone bodies, when in excess.


e. it yields large amounts of ATP

lipids are converted into glycogen molecules.

Achondroplasia is the result of an autosomal dominant gene mutation causing short stature (Little people) and bone deformities. If Harry who is affected by the condition marries a girl of normal height, what is the chance that their children will be of normal height? (Note: Harry's parents are unaffected)

50%

Blockage of the bile duct would interfere with digestion of

fats.

Protein digestion begins in the

stomach.

Which of the following statements about skeletal muscle contraction is INCORRECT?


a. thin filaments and thick filaments are connected by a cross-bridge


b. calcium is required


c. glucose attaches to the myosin head to provide the energy required


d. acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter involved in transmitting the message to contract


e. the process of contraction increases the overlap between the thick and thin filaments

glucose attaches to the myosin head to provide the energy required

Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract forward are called

peristalsis.

Which of the following statements about the digestion system is correct?


a. a normal, healthy large intestine will contain bacteria.


b. the stomach is a region where significant absorption of food occurs.


c. most chemical digestion has taken place by the time food reaches the small intestine.


d. saliva contains acid to help with the denaturing of proteins.


e. the inner lining of the oesophagus is thin and delicate

a normal, healthy large intestine will contain bacteria.

Fats are quite hard to digest because

they are not water soluble.

Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscle cells have many

mitochondria.

Each of the following is a function of the liver, EXCEPT


a. synthesis and secretion of bile.


b. digestive enzyme production.


c. synthesis of plasma proteins.


d. inactivation of toxins.


e. removal of damaged red blood cells.

digestive enzyme production

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

mouth

Intestinal villi

- Increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.


- have an outer surface of simple columnar epithelial cells.


- contain vessels of the lymphatic system as well as capillaries.

Proteins are quite hard to digest because

they have a complex three-dimensional folded shape.

The phase in the cardiac cycle when the left AV (mitral) valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the

systolic ejection phase

Cardiac output can be increased by all of the following except one.


a. Decreasing ejection fraction


b. Decreasing end systolic volume


c. Increasing stroke volume


d. Increasing ejection fraction


e. Increasing heart rate

Decreasing ejection fraction

During the ventricular relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle

ventricular volume will be increasing as the ventricle fills with blood.

The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart.


1. right atrium


2. left atrium


3. right ventricle


4. left ventricle


5. venae cavae


6. aorta


7. pulmonary trunk/artery


8. pulmonary veins

5, 1, 3, 7, 8, 2, 4, 6

If the force of ventricular contraction increases, what will happen to the end-systolic volume?

decrease

Blood flowing into the heart from the pulmonary vein will flow past the ________ valve.

left AV (mitral)

Compared to other vessel types, which of the following statements about arteries is INCORRECT?


a. they have the thickest wall of any vessel in the circulatory system.


b. they are under the greatest pressure from blood being pumped from the heart.


c. elastic tissue in their walls rebounds to help keep blood moving between heart beats.


d. blood here moves at the slowest velocity (speed).


e. they contain smooth muscle in their wall.

blood here moves at the slowest velocity (speed).

Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae will flow past the ________ valve.

right AV (tricuspid)

The venae cavae veins carry ________ blood to the ________ .

deoxygenated; right atrium

Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone

erythropoietin.

________ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

The coagulation phase

Non-specific immunity, such as phagocytosis, is a function of which blood cells?

neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes

Which of the following is true of eosinophils?


a. patients with parasitic infections have many


b. people with allergies will have many eosinophils


c. they are able to phagocytose


d. they normally constitute about 2 to 4 percent of WBCs


e. All of the above answers are correct.

e. All of the above answers are correct.

All the circulating red blood cells in an adult originate in the

red bone marrow.

Which cells are capable of engulfing particles and microbes that might reach the alveoli?

alveolar macrophages

The nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx constitute the ________ zone of the airway.

conducting

Which of the following statements about the baroreceptor reflex is INCORRECT?


a. there is a baroreceptor in the aortic arch.


b. there is a baroreceptor in the lower leg.


c. detection of a drop below ideal blood pressure leads to reduced parasympathetic stimulation to the heart.


d. an appropriate response to a detection of a drop below ideal blood pressure would be to increase cardiac output


e. an appropriate response to a detection of a rise above ideal blood pressure would be to decrease heart rate

b. there is a baroreceptor in the lower leg.

How would removal of calcium ions from a blood sample affect coagulation?

coagulation would be prevented

An acute infection of the throat that can lead to swelling and closure of the glottis and cause suffocation is known as

epiglottitis.

What cells within the alveoli are specialised for gaseous exchange

simple squamous epithelial cells

Which of these substances normally CANNOT pass through the filtration membrane in the nephron?


a. bicarbonate ions


b. sodium ions


c. glucose


d. fibrinogen


e. water

d. fibrinogen

Given these parts of a nephron:


1.renal corpuscle


2.collecting duct


3.loop of Henle


4.distal tubule


5.proximal tubule

1, 5, 3, 4, 2

In pneumonia, fluid increasese in the alveoli of the lungs. What effect does this have on respiration?

Increase in breathing rate, following decrease in gaseous exchange.

Increase in breathing rate, following decrease in gaseous exchange.

vital capacity

The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up the

lower respiratory tract.

It is important that free H+ resulting from dissociation of H2CO3 combine with haemoglobin to reduce the possibility of __________.

an acidic condition within the blood.

What is the functional relationship between haemoglobin and pH?

As pH drops, HbO2 saturation decreases.

The structure that conducts the urine to the exterior of the body is the

urethra

The resulting pain and inflammation when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between the pleural layers is known as

pleurisy

The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is

reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.

Which of the following substances is/are not normally found in the filtrate?

protein

what does Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) effect within the kidneys

increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.

Which is the CORRECT order of structures that sperm pass through when leaving the body?

Epididymis Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Urethra.

Which of the following is not an important function of the kidney?


a. control of total body water


b. control of the electrolyte composition of the blood


c. excretion of excess protein


d. control of production of red blood cells by bone marrow


e. regulation of blood pressure

excretion of excess protein

Which statement is INCORRECT concerning RAA?


a. Renin is secreted by specialised cells of the kidneys on detection of low blood pressure


b. Angiotensinogen is produced by the liver


c. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is made in the lung capillaries


d. Aldosterone, and not Angiotensin II, stimulates thirst and salt appetite


e. Angiotensin II is a very potent vasoconstrictor.

Aldosterone, and not Angiotensin II, stimulates thirst and salt appetite
All of the following belong to the urinary system EXCEPT the

a. bladder


b. ureter


c. urethra


d. prostate


e. kidney

d. prostate

The main force that causes filtration in a nephron is

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure.

From your knowledge of the role that oxytocin has in normal labour, which of the following would be the most likely consequence of giving a woman who is ready to give birth an injection of oxytocin?

muscle contractions would be induced, leading to labour and delivery of the baby

=The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the

Uterus

The hormone useful in the home pregnancy detection test is:

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Which cells secrete testosterone?

interstitial (Leydig) cells.

The cervix stretches, thins and opens during this stage of parturition (birth)

dilation stage

Which of the following is NOT a maternal adaptation for pregnancy?


a. The blood volume increases by 50% towards the end of pregnancy.


b. Progesterone prevents miscarriage.


c. Breathing becomes deeper and tidal volume increases.


d. The kidneys produce more urine.


e. The dramatic increase in blood volume results in hypertension.

The dramatic increase in blood volume results in hypertension.

If twins are identical, you can assume that fertilization involved

one ovum fusing with one sperm

Which of the following best describes the actions of a drug that acts as an agonist?

Binds to and activates a receptor