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85 Cards in this Set

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Division of Cell during mitosis or meiosis
Nuclear Division
Division of Cell following nuclear division
Cytokinesis
All cells of the body except sperm and egg cell (liver, skin, brain, etc.)
Somatic Cells
Somatic cells reproduce by
Mitosis
Parent cells divide and create:
Daughter Cells
Special type of somatic cells that divide by meiosis:
Germ Cells
Germ cells include:
Sperm and Egg
Zygote divides by:
Mitosis
Growth repair and maintenance occurs during
Mitosis
Sperm and unfertilized egg unite to form a:
zygote
Zygote divides by mitosis into a developing:
Embryo
The phase of growth that lasts for about 2 months is known as:
Embryogenesis
After the first 2 months of of pregnancy the embryo is called:
a fetus
_______ consists of a DNA double-helix that is wrapped around proteins:
Chromosomes
Chromosomes are found within the:
Nucleus
double stranded molecule (40% of total mass) where strands are h-bonded together by complemntary base paring (A-T G-C)
DNA Core
DNA is wrapped around proteins called:
Histone Proteins
Constricted region along the length of the chromosome - consists of special sequence of DNA nucleotides that bind to kinetochore proteins during mitosis and meiosis
Centromere
dislike structures made of proteins that form on the centromeres during prophase just prior to cell divison;

some proteins are motor proteins that help to move chromosomes during cell division;

also serve as an attachment point for mitortubles of the spindle apparatus that attaches to and separate chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
Kinetochores
DNA molecules wrap around clusters of histone proteins to form bead like structures called:
Nucleosomes
Unreplicated chromosome consists of:
one chromatid
the complex of DNA and protein taht makes up a chromosome:
Chromatin
Chromosomes make a copy of them selves when:
During S-Phase, prior to mitosis (and meiosis)
When a chromosome replicates it makes a copy of:
its DNA and makes more histone proteins
Replicated chromosomes consist of:
a pair of sister chromatids
2 identical copies of a single chromosomes that are held together at the centromere:
Sister Chromatides;
Together they make up a duplicated chromosome
2 separate centromerers of chromatids are fused together by:
cohesion proteins
Proteins bind to opposite sides of the centromere to form:
kinetochores
Chromosomes come in
Pairs numbered from 1-23
One member of each pair
Haploid
(1N=23)
Both members of each pair are:
Diploids
(2N=46)
All of the DNA associated with each chromosome
Genome
Chromosome pairs from 1-22 are called:
Autosomal Chromosomes
23rd pair is called
Sex Chromosome
Male chromosome is represented by:
XY
Female chromosome is represented by:
XX
Cells that are stained, arranged in an ordered set of chromosomes and photographed are called:
Karyotype
Cells that are prepared for a karyotype are "locked" in metaphase of mitosis by:
clochicine treatment
Four Stages of Cell Cycle
1. M (Mitosis)
2. G1 (Growth Phase 1)
3. S (Synthesis of DNA)
4. G2 (Growth Phase 2)
Mitosis
2N nucleus divides by mitosis into 2 2N daughter nuclei
G1 (Growth Phase 1)
Growth occurs as organelles double in number in preparation for mitosis.
S (synthesis of DNA)
DNA replication and chromosomal replication

Each chromosome exists as a pair of sister chromatids (replicated c'somes) that are attached by shared centromeres)
G2 (Growth phase 2)
~Replicated chromosomes (2N=46) (92 chromatids)

~Chromosomes exist as chromatin unril the end of G2

~Centosomes outside of nucleus divide
Division of the cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells
Cytokinesis
Before mitosis
Interphase of Cell Cycle
S - c'somes replicate
G2-centrosomes duplicate
4 Steps of Mitosis
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Prophase (4)
1. Chromosomes supercoil
2. Centrosomes migrate to opposite poles
3. Nuclear envelope fragments
4. Spindle fibers come out of centrosome and attach to both sides of each centromere

2N = 4 (replicated c'somes)
4 pairs of sister chromatids
8 chromatids
Metaphase (2)
1. Replicated chromosomes line up on metaphase plate (imaginary)
2. Mitotic spindle fibers fully form and are symmetrically attached to centromere's (kinetochore)

2N = 4 (replicated c'somes)
4 pairs of sister chromatids
8 chromatids
Anaphase (3)
1. Centromeres split as each sister c chromatid becomes an unreplicated chromosome
2. Chromosome count doubles.
3. The 2N sets of chromosomes are pulled apart by the shortening of spindle fibers towards opposite poles

2N = 4 (unreplicated c'somes)
2N = 4 (unreplicated c'somes)
8 chromosomes
Telephase (4)
1. The two 2N sets of chromosomes arrive at opposite ends of cell
2. Nuclear envelope surrounds each 2N set
3. Mitosis is over
4. Cytokinesis occurs during telephase to produce 2N daughter cells.

2N = 4 (unreplicated c'somes)
2N = 4 (unreplicated c'somes)
8 chromosomes
ATP-dependent process by which the cytoplasm of the cell is cleaved into 2 to produce 2 daughter cells
Cytokinesis
Name of gap in splitting daughter cells
Cleavage Furrow
Division of the nucleus in which the chromosome number is reduced by half
Meiosis
Meiosis leads to the formation of:
Haploid Gamates (Sex cells: sperm and egg)
Sperm and egg are produced in:
Gonads
2 Types of Gonads
Testis (Male)
Ovaries (Female)
Meiosis of a germ cell that happens in the testes
Spermatogenesis
meiosis of a germ cell that occurs in the ovary
Oogenesis
chromosomes present in human sperm are called
Paternal Chromosomes
chromosomes present in human egg cell are called
Maternal Chromosomes
2N = 46 or 23 pairs
Diploid
1N = 23, where 1 of each chromosome pair is present
Haploid
Chromosome pairs from 1 to 22
Autosomes
23rd pair of chromosome
Sex chromosomes
one member of a chromosomal pair:
Homolog
Display of paired sets of condensed chromosomes sorted by decreasing length, shape, and centromere location
Karyotype
Chromosomal replication in germ cells occurs during
S-phase of Interphase
Germ cells are 2N=46 if replicated they represent
92 sister chromatids (46 pairs)
The 92 sister chromatids (46 replicated chromosomes) are distributed to 2 nuclei with 46 chromosomes (2 2N nuclei)
Mitosis
The 92 sister chromatids (46 replicated chromosomes) are distributed to 4 1N nuclei with 23 chromosomes each
Meiosis
In oogenesis in the female ovary produces 3 small 1N polar bodies that die and 1 large 1N gamete that survives called:
Ovum
Steps of Meiosis I
1. Meiosis 1
2. Metaphase 1
3. Anaphase 2
4. Telephase 2
Before meiosis 1 beings
chromosomes replicate to become a pair of sister chromatids and 2 centrosomes replicate
Prophase 1 (5)
1. Chromosomes condense
2. Centrosomes migrate to opposite poles
3. Nuclear envelope fragments
4. Spindle fibers attach to only 1 side of each centromere
5. Homologs ungergo synapsis and pair up to form tetrads

2N = 4(replicated c'somes)
4 pairs of sister chromatids (8 Chromatids)
Metaphase 1 (2)
1. Replicated chromosomes line up randomly in double file fashion on the metaphase plate
2. Meotic spindle fibers become symetrical

2N = 4(replicated c'somes)
4 pairs of sister chromatids (8 Chromatids)
Anaphase 1 (3)
1. Centromeres do not divide
2. homologs separate into 2 1N sets taht migrate towards opposite poles
3. Chromosome count is cut in half (2N to 2 sets of N)

1N = 2 Replicated c'somes
1N = 2 Replicated c'somes
8 chromatids
Telephase 1 (3)
1. The 2 1N sets of duplicated chromosomes arrive at opposite ends of the cell
2. Nuclear envelope develops
3. Cytokineis occurs

1N = 2 Replicated c'somes
1N = 2 Replicated c'somes
8 chromatids
Prophase 2 (4) (occurs twice once for each 1N)
1. 1N set of chromosomes condense
2. Centrosomes migrate to opposite poles
3. Nuclear envelope fragments
4. Spindle fibers form and attach to both sides of centromeres

1N=2(replicated c'somes)
2 pairs of sister chromatide (4 chromatids)
Metaphase 2 (2)
1. Replicated set of 1N chromosomes line up randomly in a single file fashion on the metaphase plate
2. Spidle fibers are symmetrical

1N=2(replicated c'somes)
2 pairs of sister chromatide (4 chromatids)
Anaphase 2 (3)
1. Centromeres divide as each sister chromatid becomes an unreplicated chromosome.
2. Chromosome count doubles (2 1N sets)
3. The 1N sets are pulled apart by shortening spindle fibers

1N = 2(unreplicated c'somes)
1N = 2(unreplicated c'somes)
Telephase 2 (4)
1. The two 1N sets of chromosomes arrive at opposite ends of cell
2. Nuclear envelope forms
3. Meiosis is over
4. Cytokinesis occurs

1N = 2(unreplicated c'somes)
1N = 2(unreplicated c'somes)
Genetically identical twins that develop from same fertilized egg
Maternal Twins
Twins that develop from two sperm and two eggs
Fraternal Twins
Fusion of sperm and egg to form zygote:
Fertilization
Failure of the chromosomes to separate during meiosis
Nondisjunction