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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Reflex Arc (6)

Sensory receptor, stimulis, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector

Anatomy of the Ear (9)

Pinna - catches and directs the sound waves into the auditory canal, high freq sounds heard over low freq sounds.

Auditory canal- directs sounds into the middle ear (sound moves through solid)

Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum) vibrates

Malleus, incus, and stapes are ossicles

Malleus (hammer) - receives sound vibrations from the TM

Incus (anvil) - receives sound vibrations from the malleus

Stapes (stirrup) - terminates at the oval window of cochnea

Oval window to cochnea

Eustachian - equalizing the external and internal environments, pressure

Semi Circular canals - play no role in hearing, maintain balance and equilibrium. Movement of body causes the fluid to move in the opposite direction, pushes cupula hair cells, mechanoreceptors depolarization occurs.

Anatomy of the Eye - front Anterior Cavity (6)

Sclera - outermost membrane. Tough, white outer tissue

Cornea - exterior over lens, in front of sclera, transparent

Iris - right behind the aqueous humour, changes size to reveal pupil and allow different levels of light in.

Pupil - hole in the iris that allows light to pass to lens

Choroid - thin, pigmented inner layer

Ciliary body and suspensatory ligaments - close tightens O, far relaxes, flattens

Anatomy of the Eye - Rear Posterior Cavity (3)

Vitreous humour - os volume of the eye, located between the lens and the retina ( "liquid lens")

Optic nerve - sensory neutrons that transmit optic info to the brain, connects to the retina at the blind spot (optic disk)

Retina - black wall which contains photoreceptors

The Retina (3)

Light passes through the retina, bounces off of the back and is then received by the photo receptors > then info is passed to the bipolar bodies > passed to optic nerves rods and cones - retinol dissociates from opsin, is hyper polarized.

Rods - light. Rhodopsin is made of retinol (vitamin A) and opsin (protein). Cones- pigments are called photopsins- less light sensitive more sensitive to colour.

Eye Diseases (4 plus optic chiasm)

Optic Chiasm - neural pathways, x shaped, opposites

Glaucoma - blockage of ducts that drain aqueous humour build up of AH, pressure on the optic nerve.

Cataracts - cloudy cornea

Myopia - near sighted, TOO LONG concave lenses

Hyperopia - far sightedness, TOO SHORT

Volume virus pitch (2)

Volume - determined by the height of the sound wave, bisacellar membrane vibrates, increased volume = increased pressure = more receptors stimulated.

Pitch - Biscellar membrane more/less sensitive at different part son the cochlea, determines pitch

oval window short = high freq, long = low freq

Anatomy of the Brain (14)

Thalamus - coordinates, interprets sensory information, directs to cerebrum, cerebral cortex (switchboard of the brain)

Hypothalamus - maintain homeostasis (hunger, thirst, body temperature) links NS to endocrine via the pituitary glands

Pituitary glands - major endocrine gland, growth, body temperature, BP and pain regulation.

Corpus callosum - bridge between hemispheres, white matter here.

Midbrain - connection visual, reflex.

Pons- relays information between the cerebrum and the forebrain, info to thalamus, autonomic NS control.

Medulla oblongata - controls HR, BP, breathing, swallowing connects SC to higher levels of the brain

Cerebellum - coordination, fine motor skills, balance

Cerebrum - integration center, white matter, includes the grey matter in the cerebral cortex (four lobes)

Frontal lobe- motor control for voluntary movements

Parietal lobe - sensory receptors for touch position and orientation

Temporal Lobe- auditory reception, processes visual info

Occipital lobe - visual info analysis, recognition