Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/108

Click to flip

108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ocular Lens
Nearest to your eye
Monocular
When microscope only has one ocular lens.
binocular
When microscope has 2 lenses
Interpupillary Adjustment
Distance between ocular lenses.
Most ocular lenses magnify ___x
10x
Pointer
thin black line you see when looking through ocular lenses
Objective Lens
Lenses that are closest to the specimen. (usually 3/4)
Rotating nosepiece
rotating piece on which the objective lenses are attached.
Total magnification
10x times objective lens magnification
Body tube
Part on microscope between ocular and objective lenses
Mechanical Stage
Platform on which slide is placed
Substage
Area under the stage
Iris diaphragm
regulates the amount of light that shines through the slide by means of a lever that moves back and forth
Condenser
Focuses the light on the specimen (rotate knob)
Base
Bottom of microscope
illuminator
light source
What numbers of intensity does the illuminator offer?
1-10
Arm
connects the body tube to the stage and the base
What is the larger knob on the microscope called?
coarse focus
What is the smaller knob on the microscope called?
fine focus
What are the levels of classification in order
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What are the 5 kingdoms in the Whittaker System?
Monera, Protista, Fungi, plantae, Animalia
What are the 3 domains of the cladistic system?
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
Bacteria
-prokaryotic
-circular DNA, no membrane bound organelles
-peptidoglycan in cell wall
-1 RNA polymerase
Archaea
-prokaryotic
- circular DNA
-no peptidoglycan in cell wall
-Multiple RNA polymerases
Eukarya
-Chromosomes not circular
- membrane bound organelles
What are the decomposers of our world?
Bacteria and fungi
What three organisms lead to human diseases?
bacteria, protists, fungi
All bacteria are ______
prokaryotic
Bacteria reproduce by_________
binary fission
Binary fission
Reproduction in bacteria, cell lengthens, DNA replicates cell membrane pinches in
Bacteria produce 2 _______ daughter cells.
identical
Gram Staining
method used to stain bacteria so that they can be viewed. =
Heat fixing
used while gram staining to make sure bacteria stick to the slide.
What is the process used for gram staining? (in detail all steps)
1. Draw and oval and place bacteria on slide
2: heat fix the slide
3: dip in crystal violet for 30 seconds
4: rise off crystal violet
5: Dip in iodine for 60 seconds
6: rinse off iodine
7: Add 1 drop of alcohol
8: Rinse in water
9: Dip in safranin for 90 seconds
10: Rinse safranin off
coccus
round shapes bacteria
bacillus
elogated or oval shape
spirillum
spiral shaped bacteria
What color are Gram Positive bacteria?
purple.
What color are Gram Negative bacteria?
pink
Describe cell wall of Gram Positive Bacteria
thick peptidoglycan cell wall.
Describe cell wall of Gram Negative Bacteria
Thick lipid bilayer followed by a thin layer of peptidoglycan wall
What drugs are gram positive bacteria sensitive to?
streptomycin and tetracycline
What is one thing that gram positive bacteria have that allows then to survive dessiccation, heat and chemicals?
resting spores
autotrophic
can make their own food
-photosynthetic
-chemosynthetic
heterotrophic
need to consume other organisms or plants in order to survive
What is the common names for cyanobacteria?
blue-green algae
Where are cyanobacteria usually found?
wet places
How to cyanobacteria reproduce?
fission
heterocysts
special cells with thick cell walls that keep themselves oxygen free. They are used to fix nitrogen into ammonium
Why do heterocysts have to remain oxygen free?
heterocysts fix nitrogen and the enzyme that does this breaks down in the presence of oxygen
Azolla
water fern that floats on the water surface
What are the two types of cyanobacteria?
1: gleocapsa
2: anabaena
Describe protists
-eukaryotic
-can be unicellular or multicellular
When organisms reproduce sexually they cycle between a ________ state and a ________ state
haploid diploid
Haploid state is produced via __?
meiosis
Diploid state is created via ____?
fertilization
What class is under the phylum chrysophyta?
navicula
Diatoms
-unicellular
-photosynthetic algae
-can be found in fresh and salt water
What are the genus within Rhizopoda?
-amoeba
Nucleus
contains DNA
pseudopodia
long projections from the center of the organisms that are used in capturing food and in locomotion
What is the genus under the phylum sarcostigophora?
trichonympha
Where are the genus trichonympha found?
inside termite guts
mutualistic relationship
both organisms benefit
flagella
long moving filaments covering the cell...used in locomotion
parasitic relationship
only one benefits while the other is harmed
commensalistic relationship
one organism benefits while the other is not hurt
What is the genus under the phylum euglenophyta?
Euglena
Pellicle
thin, elastic and tough outer layer of the organism Euglena
What are the function of chloroplasts?
carry out photosynthesis
Contractile vacuole
round structure that removes excess water from the cell
photoreceptor
found near flagella, functions to percieve light. reddish orange color
What is the genus under the category ciliophora?
paramecium
Describe parameciums
- unicellular
-heterotrophic
-green color
Cilia
small projections that cover the cell that aid in locomotion
Oral Cavity
groove that leads to the mouth
Contractile Vacuole
removes water from the cell
Conjugation
method of sexual reprodution in paramecium
What is the genus under the category myxomycota?
physarum
What is the common name for physarum?
slime mold
plasmodium
active growing stage of slime mold (physarum)
sclerotium
dormant dry resting stage of slime mold (physarum)
What are the genus's under chlorophyta?
volvox and oedogonium
colony
group of cells
oogamy
process by which the organism produces eggs and sperm
How is a daughter colony formed?
smaller spheres form in the large colony. when the large colony splits apart the daughter colony is formed.
zygospore
fusion of male and female gametes
holdfast
terminal cell that job is to adhere to surfaces using specialized projections
antheridia
specialized cell that produces male gemete-sperm
oogonia
specialized cell that produced the female gamete-egg
describe chlorophyta
-photosynthetic
- unicellular or multicellular
-green algae
describe phaeophyta
-multicellular
-brown algae
- abundant in oceans
What is the genus under the phylum phaephyta
fucus
Blade
flattened wide leaf-like structure
conceptacle
structure that contains the reproductive organs
What is the genus under the phylum rhodophyta?
polysohponia
Describe rhodophyta
-multicellular
-photosynthetic
-red algae
cystocarp
strcuture on the female gametophyte that houses carpospores
carpospores
diploid that results from fertilization
What are the walls of fungi made of?
chitin
What is the common name for zygomycota?
bread mold
What is the genus under the phylum zygomycota?
Rhizopus
hyphae
filaments made of haploid cells arranged end to end
mycelium
mass of hyphae. considered the gametophyte generation
rhizoids
short hyphae that attach to a surface
sporangia
round asexual bodies that produce spores
zygospores
dipolod zygote