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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Phylum Porifera


Phylum Cnidaria

Coelenterata (Hollow Intestine)

~ Class Hydrozoa (Freshwater Hydras)

~ Class Scyphozoa (Jellyfish)

~ Class Anthozoa (Sea Anemones and Corals)

Phylum Nematoda


Phylum Annelida

~ Segmented Worms

~ Class Polychaeta: Clamworms, Bristleworms, Sandworms

~ Class Oligochaeta: Earthworms

~ Class Hirudinea: Leeches

Animal Development

Gametes fuse > Zygote > Morula (Cleavage) > Blastula (Cleavage) > Differentiation Of Specialization > Germ Layer > Inner (Endoderm) > Middle (Mesoderm) > Outer (Ectoderm) > Body Cavity May Be One Of > Acoelomate (Solid), Psuedocoelomate (Btwn Meso & Endo), Coelomate (w/in the Meso) > Gut Forms > Archenteron > either mouth first (Protostome) or anus first (Dueterostome) > Blastospore Becomes > Mouth or Anus


The primitive digestive sac of a gastrula


Sponge: Feeding

~ Filter Feeder which sift microscopic particles of food from water that passes through them. Food sticks to collar cells and is engulfed or it may be passed to amebocytes for digestion

Sponge: Internal Transport

~ The flow of water through the sponge serves as internal transport for O2, CO2 and wastes. The flagella of the collar cells sets up water currents through the sponge body

Sponge: Excretion

~ Metabolic wastes such as ammonia are released into the water and carried away

Sponge: Respiration

~ H20 flowing through the sponge releases O2 and gives off CO2

Sponges: Reproduction

~ Eggs are kept w/i the body wall; sperm may enter another sponge by H2O currents and are picked up by ameobocytes and carried to that sponges eggs where fertilization occurs.

~ Zygote > Larvae (swims) > Settles on substrate to grow into an adult


~ Soft bodied animals

~ Stinging tentacles

~ Examples: Jellyfish, Corals, Hydras

~ Exhibit Radial Symmetry

~ Have specialized cells and tissues

~ an internal space called a gastrovascular cavity where digestion takes place

~ Capture and Eat Small Animals

~ Lack a central nervous system and muscle cells

~ Specialized epidermal cells that serve the same functions as muscle cells

~ Possess 2 true germ layers > Endoderm & Ectoderm

~ Ex) Hydra, Jellyfish

What is the function of the trigger?

The trigger is sensitive to touch and fires ~ the dart uncoils and buries itself in the skin of its prey

Worm Classification

Worms > Segmented | Unsegmented

> Segmented, Phylum Annelida > Class Polychaeta (Fanworm, Fireworm, Seamouse), Class Oligochaete (Earthworm), Class Hirudinea (Leech)

> Unsegmented > Roundworms | Flatworms

> Roundworms, Phylum Nematoda (Ascaris)

> Flatworms, Phylum Platyhelminthes > Class Turbellaria (Planaria), Class Trematoda (Bloodfluke or Schistosoma), Class Cestoda (Tapeworm)

Planarian: Body Plan

Planarian: Cross Section

Planarian: Digestive System

Planarian: Nervous System


Liver Fluke


~ Simplest animals with bilateral symmetry

~ Exhibit cephalization

~ Have a head


~ Simplest animals with a digestive system with two openings, a mouth and an anus

~ Several parasitic roundworms cause diseases in humans such as ascaris, Trichinella and hookworms

What is the purpose of the branches within the gastrovascular cavity of the Flatworm?

The enzymes help breakdown food into small particles which are taken inside of the cells which digestion is completed; Can diffuse to other body tissues.

Evidence Of Flatworm Cephalization

There is a simplified brain which is the centre of a simple nervous system that stretches along one or more nerve cords along either side of the body. They also have light sensitive eyespots in the head region.

Characteristics Of Roundworms

~ Bilateral symmetry

~ Cephalization

~ Tube Within A Tube Body Plan

~ Pseudocolem

~ Cylindical body that is tapered at each end

~ Organ system level of organization

Phylum Nematoda: Ascaris

~ Parasitic; Lives in humans

~ De-worming for pets

~ Sexes are separate

~ Has a cuticle which protects the worm from the digestive action of enzymes in the hosts small intestine.

Phylum Nematoda: Trichinella

~ Causes Trichinosis

~ Humans can get it by eating improperly cooked pork

~ Larvae form cysts which "hide out" in muscle tissue

Phylum Nematoda: Filarial Worms

~ Transmitted through biting insects in tropical regions

~ May cause tissue swellings or elephantitis

Phylum Nematoda: Eye Worm

~ Found in Africa predominantly

~ Causes River Blindness

~ Affects Humans and Baboons

Phylum Platyhelminthes; Class Turbellaria

~ Bilateral Symmetry

~ Acoelomate

~ Cephalization

~ 3 Germ Layers

~ Mostly Freshwater (some live in the sea)

~ Free Living

~ Sexual & Asexual (Hermaphrodites)

~ Pharynx & Eyespots are special structures

~ Planaria

~ 'Sac' Body Plan

Phylum Platyhelminthes; Class Trematoda

~ Bilateral Symmetry

~ Acoelomate

~ Cephalization

~ 3 Germ Layers

~ Freshwater (Human & Snail Hosts)

~ Parasitic

~ Sexual & Asexual (Hermaphrodites)

~ 2 suckers are special structures

~ Schistosoma ( Blood/Liver Flukes)

~ 'Sac' Body Plan

Phylum Platyhelminthes; Class Cestoda

~ Bilateral Symmetry

~ Acoelomate

~ Cephalization

~ 3 Germ Layers

~ Host (Cow & Human

~ Parasitic

~ Sexual & Asexual (Hermaphrodites)

~ suckers & hooks on scolex are special structures

~ Tapeworm

~ 'Sac' Body Plan

Phylum Nematoda; Roundworms

~ Bilateral Symmetry

~ Pseudocoelem

~ Cephalization

~ 3 Germ Layers

~ Host, Aquatic, Terrestrial

~ Parasitic & Free Living

~ Some have separate sexes, some hermaphrodites

~ Tube Within A Tube Body Plan

~ Ascaris, Trichella

Digestion Of Tapeworms

Have no digestive tract


Animal that has a backbone


Animal that does not have a backbone

Division Of Labour

Phenomenon in which groups of specialized cells carry out different tasks in an organism


An organism that eats plants


An organism that eats meat


An organism that survives by living and feeding either inside of, or attached to outer surfaces of another organism, thus doing harm to the host

Filter Feeder

Aquatic animal that feeds by straining tiny floating plants and animals from the water around it.

Detritus Feeder

An animal that feeds on tiny bits of decaying plants and animals


An immature stage of an organism that is unlike it's adult form


A series of dramatic changes in body form in the life cycle of some animals

Collar Cell

One of the cells forming the wall of a sponges central cavity


A large hole, through which water exits the central cavity of a sponge


One of the thin, spiny structures that form the skeleton of a sponge


Sponge cell that builds spicules from calcium carbonate or silica; moves around in the sponge to distribute food to the sponge tissues


A protein that makes up the skeleton of some sponges


Sphere shaped collection of amebocytes surrounded by spicules, which can grow into a new sponge


A form of asexual reproduction in sponges where a small organism starts it's growth off of the side of the parent


Phylum that contains soft-bodied animals with stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouth


Sessile, flowerlike cnidarian


Motile, bell-shaped cnidarian

Gastrovascular Cavity

Digestive cavity in cnidarians with only one opening


Phylum name for roundworms


An individual that has both male and female reproductive organs

Unsegmented Worm

Worms whose body is not divided into special sections by internal partitions; describes both roundworms and flatworms


Muscular, tubelike structure located at the back of the mouth that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract

Epidermis (Sponge)

The epidermis is the layer of cells that covers the outer surface of the sponge. The thin, flattened cells of the epidermis are called pinacocytes.

Central Cavity (Sponge)

Water enters the central cavity through hundreds of tiny pores and exits through the larger opening. The cavity is lined with choanocytes, which have flagella that push water through the cavity, creating a current.

Cnidoblast (Hydra)

A developing cell containing a cnidocyst

Sensory Cell (Hydra)

A cell in the peripheral nervous system that receives sensory input

Nerve Cell (Hydra)

A neuron; a cell of the nervous system that transmits nerve impulses


The gastroderm is the inner layer of cells lining the gastrovascular cavity of cnidarians. Sometimes called the endoderm.


A simple light sensing organ found in many invertebrates


Short hairlike projection that produces movement in many cells

Scolex (Tapeworm)

The scolex or "head" of a tapeworm. Attaches to the intestine of the host.

Proglottids (inds)

One of the segments of a tapeworm that contains reproductive material, both male and female organs

Pore (Sponge)

Water moves into the central cavity through small pores all over the sponges body.


A capsule containing thread-like tube (commonly barbed and toxic)

Phylum Mollusca

~ Class Monoplacophora: Neopilina

~ Class Polyplacophora: Chitons

~ Class Gastropoda: Snails & Slugs

~ Class Pelecypoda or Bivalvia: Clams, Mussels, Scallops, Oysters

~ Class Cephalopoda: Squids and Octopus

Phylum Echinodermata

~ Class Crinoidea: Sea lilies, and feather stars

~ Class Asteroidea: Starfish

~ Class Ophiuroidea: Brittle stars, and Serpent Stars

~ Class Echinoidea: Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars

~ Class Holothuroidea: Sea Cucumbers

Phylum Anthropoda

~ Class Onychophora: Peripatus

~ Class Crustacea: Crayfish, Lobsters, Barnicles, Crabs , Pill Bugs

~ Class Arachnida: Spiders, Scopions, Mites, Harvestman

~ Class Diplopoda: Milipedes

~ Class Chilopoda: Centipedes

~ Class Insecta: Insects