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27 Cards in this Set

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Not a true cell.

Cells that do not have a nuclear membrane.

Ex. Viruses and bacteria.


True cells

Have a nuclear membrane surrounding the nucleus.

Ex. Plant and animal cells


Mostly water.

Fluid filled space.

Stores substances until they are needed by the cell.

Many chemical reactions take place (ex. protein synthesis)

Rough Endoplastic Reticulum

Network of branching tubes and pockets with fluids.

Transports materials (eg. protein, hormones) through the cell.

Cell Membrane

Double layered with a hydrophilic (3- phosphate) head and a hydrophobic tail (chain of fatty acids).

Support and keeps the organelles inside the cell.

Semi-permeable: only allows water and small molecules to pass through.

Cell wall: mosaic model


Double nuclear membrane.

Most cells have one nucleus.

Slime, mould and skeletal muscle cells have multiple nuclei.

Contains the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid) that controls cell activity (eg. protein synthesis).


Double membrane.

Kidney shape.

Folded inner membrane increases surface area for cellular respiration.

Power house of the cell.

Synthesizes usable energy via cellular respiration by converting glucose to adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water vapour + ATP

Golgi Complex

Deflated ballon shape surrounded by vesicles.

Collects and processes materials to be removed from the cell.

Makes and secretes mucus.


Large in plant cell.


Contains wastes and fluids to maintain the cell.

Turgor Pressure

Pressure exerted by water against the cell to keep the plant upright.

Cell Wall

Made of a long chain of glucose called cellulose.

Only found in plant cells.

Provides support and protection.

Maintains turgor pressure.


The movement of chemicals into and out of a cell from from and area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (with concentration gradient).

Does not require ATP.


The movement of water across the cell membrane from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration (with concentration gradient).

Does not require ATP.

Osmotic Pressure

Water pressure in a cell.

Low osmotic pressure = not enough water

High osmotic pressure = too much water

Equilibrium = osmotic pressure inside and outside is balanced


A mass of cells that continues to grow and divide out of control. It results from a change in DNA that controls the cell cycle.


A group of diseases in which cells grow and divide out of control. It results from a change in DNA that controls the cell cycle.

Benign Tumour

A tumour that does not affect surrounding tissues other than by physically crowding them. It is not cancerous but over time can become malignant (cancerous).

Malignant Tumour

A tumour that interferes with the functioning of surrounding cells. The cancerous cells can break away to other parts of the body.


The process of cancer cells breaking away from the original tumour (primary) and establishing another tumour (secondary) elsewhere in the body.

Cancer Cells

1. Divide uncontrollably.

2. No cell-to-cell communication.

3. Irregular shape.

4. Cells have no function or purpose.

5. No specialization.

6. Enlarged nucleus.

7. No differentiation (does not become another type of cell).

Specialized Cell

Cells that have a specific function.

Cell Differentiation

The process by which a cell changes into a different, specialized cell.


1. The nuclear membrane dissolves.

2. Centrioles send out astral rays.

3. Centrioles move to the opposite end of the cell.


1. Chromosomes line up in the middle of a cell.

2. Astral rays become spindle fibres (acting as a guiding wire to guide the duplicated chromosomes to the opposite end of the cell).

3. Spindle fibres become attached to the centromere.


1. Spindle fibres pull the chromosomes apart.


1. Nuclear membrane appears.

2. Spindle fibres disappear.

3. Cell membrane pinches causing cell to divide


Type of plastids.

Double membrane.

Only found in plant cell.

Oval shape.

Chemical process called photosynthesis occurs by capturing energy from the sun and converting it to chemical energy (glucose).

Carbon dioxide + water + light -> glucose + oxygen