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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
one of a number of different forms of a gene
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait
physical characteristics of an organism
genetic makeup of an organism
likelihood that a particular event will occur
same alleles
true breeding
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
P generation
parent generation
F1 generation
filial son or daughter in latin
F2 generation
2nd son or daughter by crossing alleles from F1 generation
trait shown more
trait shown less
sex cells (sperm and egg)
Punnett Square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
crossing one with itself
crossing one with another
principle of dominance
One form of a gene is usually dominant over the recessive form of a gene.
principle of segragation
Proves the genes segragate when gametes are formed
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
principle of independent assortment
Genes for different traits segragate indipendently from each other during the formation of gametes
principle of probability
can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses ( expressed as fraction, decimal,percentage, or ratio)
incomplete dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over another. The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the 2 homozygous phenotypes
both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism
multiple alleles
genes have more than two alleles
polygenic traits
2 or more genes control a trait
crossing- over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
homologous chromosomes
refers to a pair of chromosomes where each chromosome is familiar in shape, size and the genes they carry; one recieved from each parent
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
every chromosomes lining up next to its homologue
Down Syndrome
three copies of chromosome 21; nondisjunction;trisomy;
Kleinfelter's syndrome
(karyotype 47,XXY);The extra X chromosome interferes with meiosis and usually prevents these individuals from reproducing.
Turner's Syndrome
karyotype 45,X; sterile, which means that they are unable to reproduce. Their sex organs do not develop at puberty.
set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
sex chromosomes
one of two chromosomes that determine an individual's sex; females have two X chromosomes; males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
autosomal chromosome; chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
Father Rambousek
monk who didn't like Mendel working with the rats;reported him; became abbot after Mendel died; ordered Mendel's scripts burned
Abbot Napp
head of monastery who advised him to go to university; disallowed him to work with rats
Professor Franz Unger
Mendel's professor at the university of Vienna; had the similar views as Mendel with regards to disbelieving Lamarks's theory
Johann Nave
His friend at the monastery: died of TB; encouraged Mendel to publish his findings on inheiritance; didn't live to hear Mendel speak at the scientific society.
his sister; gives Mendel her dowry; Mendel goes to her wedding
Jan Twrdy
breeder of plants
Joseph Maresh
gardener at monastery
Mendel's nephew; studying to be a doctor; tells Mendel his life expectancy
The diploid # of chromosomes for a species
The haploid # of chromosomes for a species