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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Chapter 1


Properties of life

Living organisms:


•made of cells-simplist units of life


•uses energy through process of metabolism=chemical reaction in cells


•contains genetic information (DNA/genome) that's passed to new cells for offspring through reproduction


•living organisms in form of population will evolve (change)

Chapter 1


Homeostasis

Another property of life that an organism maintain stable internal conditions

Chapter 1


Domains (Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic)

Prokaryotic:


•bacteria and archaea


Eukaryotic:


•Eukarya

Chapter 1


Domain Eukarya, Kingdoms

•protist


•fungi


•plantae


•animilia

Chapter 1


Differences between producers, consumers and decomposers

Producers:


•plantae, photosynthesis (makes food) autotroph


Consumers:


•animilia, rely on other organisms heterotrophs


Decomposers:


•fungi, live on other organisms, heterotrophs

Chapter 1


Binomial Nomenclature:


homo sapiens

Homo sapiens


Both needs to be underlined

Chapter 1


Two ways to study science

Discovery based:


•observation and gathering of data/leads to question


Hypothesis based:


•ask questions, designed experiment to prove or disprove a hypothesis (answer to question)

Chapter 2


Atomic number and mass number

Atomic number:


number of protons in the nucleus


Atomic mass:


•number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

Chapter 2


Electron shells

14
7   N 
•1st shell=2
•2nd shell=8
•number of empty spots=number of covalent bonds (in this case, 3 bonds)

7


14 N


•1st shell=2


•2nd shell=8


•number of empty spots=number of covalent bonds (in this case, 3 bonds)

Chapter 2


Elements and molecules: What makes an element?

Element:


•single unit of matter that contains specific properties


Molecules:


•two or more atoms held together by bonds (covalent or ions)

Chapter 2


Types of bonds [covalent (polar and non polar), ionic, hydrogen]

Covalent:


•sharing of electrons


-friendly=non polar, equal sharing


-polar=unequal sharing that results in slight charges on a molecule


Ionic:


•transfer of electrons, makes it fully charged


eg. Na+Cl-


Hydrogen:


•attraction between molecules due to polar charges

Chapter 2


Water

polar molecule that forms hydrogen bonds

Chapter 2


Type of bond between water molecules

hydrogen bonds

hydrogen bonds

Chapter 2


Hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic

Hydrophobic:


•molecule is made of non polar covalent bonds; doesn't dissolve in water


Hydrophilic:


•molecule is made of polar covalent or ionic bonds; does dissolve in water

Chapter 2


Solutions

Solute+solvent→solution


(solid)+(liquid) →(solid "disappears" when added to liquid)




NaCl+water→salt water

Chapter 2


pH

•measure of concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution


•hydrogen ions=H+


-AKA: protons

Chapter 2


Acids and bases

•measured on a pH scale


Acidic Basic


0 ← 7 → 14


More Less


hydrogen hydrogen


ions ions

Chapter 3


Carbon

molecules containing carbon are organic


(not CO2)

Chapter 3


Functional groups

Sugar:


•OH hydroxyl


Amino acids:


•COOH carboxyl


•NH2 amino


DNA:


2


PO3 phosphate

Chapter 3


Amino acid: structure

Chapter 3


What part is different and gives it its properties?

R group is different in each of the 20 amino acids and gives the molecule its properties

Chapter 3


Monomers and polymers


•macromolecule


•monomer


•polymer


•linkage


•role in body



Macromolecule:


•carbohydrate


•protein


nucleic acid


•lipid


Monomer:


•monosaccharide


•amino acid


•nucleotides


•fatty acids


Polymer:


•polysaccharide


•polypeptide/ protein


•DNA/RNA


•triglycerides phospholipids


Linkage:


•glycosidic linkage


•peptide bond


•-


•ester linkages


Role in body:


•energy source and storage


•many cellular functions


•stores genetic information of cells


•energy storage cell membranes

Chapter 3


Dehydration synthesis

reaction that links monomers together to form polymers; produces water

Chapter 3


Hydrolysis

reaction that breaks polymers into monomers by adding water

Chapter 4


Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes:


•DNA in nucleoid


•no membrane bound organelles


•smaller/ simpler


•archaea and bacteria


Eukaryotes:


•DNA in nucleus


•membrane bound organelles


•larger/more complex


•eukarya

Chapter 4


Eukaryotic cell structures and their functions


•Nucleus


•Smooth endoplasmic reticulum


•Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ribosomes are attached to this)


•Golgi apparatus


•Ribosomes


•Mitochondria


•Chloroplasts

Nucleus:


•contains genome/DNA


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum:


•synthesis of lipids (membrane) detoxification


Rough endoplasmic reticulum:


•transports protein made by ribosomes


Golgi apparatus:


•modifies, stores and ships proteins


Ribosomes:


•makes proteins


Mitochondria:


•converts energy stored in sugar to ATP cellular respiration


Chloroplasts:


•takes light energy and stores it in sugars; photosynthesis

Chapter 4


Which structures are in plant cells, but not animal cells?

•central vacuole


•chloroplast


•cell wall

Chapter 4


How do proteins move from ribosome to outside of cell (secreted from cell)?

Ribosome→Rough ER→Golgi apparatus→plasma membrane

Chapter 5


Membrane structure

•phospholipid bilayer (major)


-imbedded with proteins

Chapter 5


Membrane function

controls the flow of substance in and out of the cell

Chapter 5


Selectively permeable

cellular membrane- some substances can pass through easily while others can't

Chapter 5


Transport across membranes:


•Passive transport


-Diffusion


-Facilitated diffusion


•Active transport


•Bulk transport


-Exocytosis


-Endocytosis


•Osmosis

Passive transport:


•movement of molecules that don't require energy


-movement of atoms, ions, or molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration


-same as above but with the help of a transport protein


Active transport:


•movement of atoms, ions, or molecules from an area of low concentration to high concentration, requires energy


Bulk transport:


•movement of large molecules


-movement of molecules outside of cell


-movement of molecules to the inside of the cell


Osmosis:


•diffusion/movement of water across the membrane

Chapter 5


Tonicity:


•Hypertonic


•Hypotonic

Hypertonic:


•area of higher solute concentration


Hypotonic:


•area of lower solute concentration

Chapter 5


How does water move in osmosis?

water moves to hypertonic area with the most solute

Chapter 5

In hypertonic-water moves out of the cell

Chapter 5

In hypotonic-water moves into the cell

Chapter 10


Multicellular

an organism composed of more than one cell

Chapter 10


How do animal cells maintain multicellularity?


What is it made of?

Animal:


•secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) binds cells together to form tissues


Material:


•protein and polysaccharides

Chapter 10


How do plant cells maintain multicellularity?


What is it made of?

Plant:


•Through the cell wall and the junctions formed between adjacent cells


Material:


•cellulose

Chapter 10


What is a tissue?

Tissue:


•group of cells having a similar structure and function


In animals:


•nervous: communication


•epithelial: lining and covering


•connective: join

Chapter 6


First law of thermodynamics

energy can't be created or destroyed, can only change form

Chapter 6


•Endergonic


•Exergonic

Endergonic:


•reactants+energy→products


•absorbs energy


•not spontaneous


•ΔG>0


Exergonic:


•reactants→products+energy


•releases energy


•spontaneous


•ΔG<0

Chapter 6


Enzyme is what type of macromolecule?

proteins

Chapter 6


How does an enzyme work?

•speed up the rate of a chemical reaction


•lowering activation energy of reaction


•substrate is called the reactant, binds to the active site - where reaction takes place


•after products are released, enzyme is reused

Chapter 6


What denatures proteins (makes them inactive)?

•temperature


•pH


•salt concentration

Chapter 6


What is the energy molecule of the cell?

ATP; releases energy when the covalent bond between phosphates are broken

Chapter 6


What is the difference between NAD+ and NADH?

NAD+:


•low in energy because it has no electrons


•when it gains electrons, it becomes NADH


NADH:


•high in energy

Chapter 7


Cellular respiration reaction equation and purpose and where

Equation:


C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP


Purpose:


•takes glucose and energy stored in molecular bonds, turning it into ATP


Where:


•mitochondria

Chapter 7


Is it aerobic or anaerobic?

aerobic=requires energy

Chapter 7


Stages and what happens at each stage. Energy output at each stage.


•Glycolysis


•Pyruvate breakdown


•Citric acid cycle


•Oxidative phosphorylation: Electron transport


•Chemiosmosis

Glycolysis:


•Function:


◦glucose + NAD+ → pyruvate + NADH


•Energy made:


◦2ATP


Pyruvate breakdown:


•Function:


◦pyruvate → acetyl-CoA + CO2


•Energy made:


◦ ----


Citric acid cycle:


•Function:


◦acetyl-CoA + NAD+ → CO2 + NADH


•Energy made:


◦2 ATP


Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport:


•Function:


◦electrons from NADH are released and travel through protein to form a H+ (hydrogen ion) gradient


•Energy made:


◦---


Chemiosmosis:


•Function:


◦H+ flows through ATP synthase to make lots of ATP


•Energy made:


◦34 ATP

Chapter 7


Fermentation

anaerobic (no O2) breakdown of glucose to yield only 2 ATP

Chapter 8


Photosynthesis reaction equation and purpose and where

Equation:


•6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2


Purpose:


•capture light energy and transfer to molecular bonds


Where


•in chloroplast of autotrophs

Chapter 8


Role and name of pigments

light energy and transfer to molecular bonds: captures the light energy; chlorophyll

Chapter 8


Stages and what happened at each stage


•Order


•Light relations


•Purpose of light reactions


•Where does the electrons come from?


•Purpose of the calvin cycle

Order:


•light reactions followed by calvin cycle


Light reactions:


•photosynthesis captures light energy and transfer it to energy


•these electrons are stored in NADPH by the enzyme, NADP+ reductase


•ATP is formed by ATP synthase


Purpose of light reactions:


•store light energy into NADPH and ATP which are used during the calvin cycle


Where does the electrons come from?


•photosynthesis → light energy is transferred electron that comes from the splitting of water


•H2O→H2+O2+e-


Purpose of the Calvin cycle:


•takes energy from NADPH and ATP and stores it in molecular bonds through the process of carbon fixation


•CO2 → C6H12O6


Inorganic Organic


carbon Carbon

Chapter 15


Products of mitosis and meiosis / diploid and haploid

Diploid:


•2n; 2 sets of chromosomes


•diploid cells → 2 identical cells (diploid) cellular division


Haploid:


•n; 1 set of chromosome

Chapter 15


Stages of the cell cycle


•Interphase:


-G1


-S


-G2


•M phase:


-mitosis


-cytokinesis

Interphase:


•G1


-growth of cell


•S


-replication of DNA


•G2


-growth to prepare for division


M phase:


•Mitosis


-division of nucleus


•Cytokinesis


-division of cytoplasm

Chapter 15


What are sister chromatids?

•replicated DNA


•held together at the centromere


•2 chromatids-1 chromosome


•2 chromosomes are separated in mitosis to form daughter chromosomes

Chapter 15


Stages of mitosis:


•Prophase


•Pro-metaphase


•Metaphase


•Anaphase


•Telophase

Prophase:


•sister chromatids condense


Pro-metaphase:


•sister chromatids attach to spindle fingers (microtubules) so they can be moved around cell


Metaphase:


•sister chromatids line up in the middle of the cell


Anaphase:


•sister chromatids separate and form daughter chromosomes


Telophase:


•daughter chromosomes go to opposite poles

Chapter 15


Purpose of meiosis

•1 cell (diploid) to form 4 cells (haploid)


•production of gametes for sexual reproduction

Chapter 15


Sexual life cycle

•2 gametes get together for fertilization
•zygote is formed which will undergo mitosis
•it'll grow up as an adult then do through meiosis
•cycle will then start over again

•2 gametes get together for fertilization


•zygote is formed which will undergo mitosis


•it'll grow up as an adult then do through meiosis


•cycle will then start over again

Chapter 15


What you need to know about the stages of meiosis:


•Meiosis


•Prophase I


•Meiosis I


•Meiosis II

Meiosis:
•is 2 cellular divisions
Prophase I:
•synapsis os homologous chromosome to form tetrads
•crossing over: non sister chromatids exchange DNA pieces
Meiosis I:
•1 cell (diploid) DNA forms tetrads, forms 2 cells that are haploid
•D...

Meiosis:


•is 2 cellular divisions


Prophase I:


•synapsis os homologous chromosome to form tetrads


•crossing over: non sister chromatids exchange DNA pieces


Meiosis I:


•1 cell (diploid) DNA forms tetrads, forms 2 cells that are haploid


•DNA formed is sister chromatid


Meiosis II:


•forms 4 haploid cells

Chapter 11


Watson and Crick's model of DNA

•DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid


•double stranded and helical


•sugar=phosphate backbone on outside


•nitrogenous bases on inside


•hydrogen bonds between bases holds the stands together

Chapter 11


Level of DNA structure

nucleotides→strand→double helix→chromosome→genome

Chapter 11


Function of replication

makes new double helix strand of DNA

Chapter 11


Write a complementary strand of DNA given a template strand

A=T and G=C

Chapter 11


Process

•happens in nucleus


•each strand = template


•leading strand = made continuously


•lagging strand = made in fragments (Okazaki fragments)

Chapter 12


Flow of genetic information in a cell

DNA→mRNA→protein

Chapter 12


Transcription

•in nucleus


•DNA makes mRNA


•base pairing =different


-A=U and G=C

Chapter 12


Write the mRNA transcribed from a DNA template

G C T A T A


C G A U A U

Chapter 12


Translation

•in cytosol in ribosome


•mRNA = protein

Chapter 12


The genetic code

•used in translation


•3 nucleotide bases=1 amino acid


•3 bases on mRNA are called codons

Chapter 12


Types of RNA


•mRNA


•tRNA


•rRNA

mRNA:


•carries the info to make protein from nucleus to ribosome


tRNA:


•brings the amino acid from the cytosol to ribosome


rRNA:


•what ribosomes are made of

Chapter 13


Gene expression

process where a gene uses its information (DNA) to make a product (mRNA/protein) that the cell uses

Chapter 13


Gene regulation

ability of cells to control which and how many products are made from DNA

Chapter 16


Genetic lingo:


•Genome


•Homozygous


•Heterozygous


•Dominant


•Recessive


•Phenotype


•Genotype

Genome:


•all DNA of the cell


Homozygous:


•pair of identical alleles for a gene


-eg AA/aa


Heterozygous:


•2 different alleles of a gene


-eg Aa


Dominant:


•the trait that's always seen


Recessive:


•the trait that's masked by the dominant; expressed (seen) in only homozygous conditions


Phenotype:


•physical appearance / ability that's seen


Genotype:


•genetic makeup; letter designation

Chapter 16


Different inheritance patterns:


•Simple dominance (be able to do a genetics problem also)


•Codominance and multiple alleles (be able to do blood type problems also)


•Incomplete dominance

Simple dominance:
•one allele is dominant over the other
Codominance and multiple alleles:
•Codominance: both alleles are expressed at the same time (AB)
•Multiple alleles: more than 2 alleles (A, B, O)
Incomplete dominance:
•heterozygou...

Simple dominance:


•one allele is dominant over the other


Codominance and multiple alleles:


•Codominance: both alleles are expressed at the same time (AB)


•Multiple alleles: more than 2 alleles (A, B, O)


Incomplete dominance:


•heterozygous has an intermediate phenotype


-eg. P red flower X white flower


F1 pink flowers

Chapter 16


Sex-linked genes: how are the genotypes written/interpreted?

A A A a


•X X or X X -female, normal


a a


•X X -female, defect


A


•X Y -male, normal


a


•X Y -male, defect

Chapter 14


Mutations

change in DNA of organism

Chapter 14


What causes mutations?

•spontaneous (replication errors)


•chemical mutagen


•physical mutagen (x-ray/UV ray)

Chapter 14


What is a cell's main repair mechanism?

nucleotide excision repair

Chapter 14


Cancer

uncontrolled cellular division that leads to growth

Chapter 14


What mutations lead to cancer?

•many mutations to the same cell line


•mutations in DNA repair genes


•mutations to turn proto-oncogene to oncogene


-tells genes to divide


•mutations in tumor suppressor genes


-tells cells to stop dividing if cell is not "healthy"

Chapter 18


Viral structure

•viruses aren't alive→need host cell to replicate

•viruses aren't alive→need host cell to replicate

Chapter 18


Bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

Chapter 18


Bacteriophage lytic life cycle

attachment→entry→synthesis (genome/protein)→assemble→lysis/release

Chapter 18


HIV

•causes AIDs


•host range is humans


•entire virus enters the cell


•viral genome injects into host genome

Chapter 18


Bacteria

•genome is double stranded, circular DNA


•some contain DNA also in plasmids; small circular pieces of DNA

Chapter 18


Horizontal gene transfer

how bacteria gets new genetic information; genetic material is transferred from one bacteria to another

Chapter 20


Stem cells

cells that haven't differentiated (become specialized cell)

Chapter 20


Gene cloning

making many copies of a piece of DNA

Chapter 20


Plasmids

cloning vector-DNA that'll carry DNA segments from another organism

Chapter 20


Restriction enzymes

cutting tools for DNA; useful for making recombinant DNA

Chapter 20


Gel electrophoresis

separates DNA fragments based on size; DNA=negatively charged so it moves to positive electrode

Chapter 20


Polymerase chain enzyme

makes many copies of DNA fragments quickly

Chapter 20


DNA libraries

collection of pieces of DNA from the same organism

Chapter 20


Transgenics

genetically modified organisms; has genetic material from different organisms

Chapter 20


DNA fingerprinting

technique that can identify an individual based on DNA

Chapter 20


How biotechnology is used

•makes medicine


•bio-medication (reducing pollutants)


•understanding/ curing diseases


•agriculture/transgenic plants


•cloning


•forensics