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113 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence and that generates testable and falsifiable predictions.
Theory
Some form of evidence that has been tested and confirmed so many times that there is no compelling reason to keep confirming it.
Fact
• Gradualism
• Descent form common ancestor
• Descent with modification
• Multiplication of species
• Natural selection
• Sexual selection
Darwinian Theories of Evolution
• Genetic recombination [Flu]
• Genetic drift [early history of HIV]
Non-Darwinian theories of evolution
Vast accumulation of observations and data and existing theory generates
Scientific Theory
Fossils or evidence showing how one species mutated into another species which resulted in a different species.
Transitional Forms
______legs in rubber boa.
Looks like a small claw on the side of snake. Used to make a male snake more desirable to females for mating.
Vestigial
Body part or structure on or inside an organism which serves little to no function.
Vestigial Structure
Apes/Monkeys are much stronger than humans. Hair in apes/monkeys have erector pili muscle which allows their hair to poof out and make them look larger.
Vestigial muscle in humans
99.99% of all species that have ever existed are ______ now.
Extinct
When you find a diversity of fossils in a diverse population, it indicates a recent common ancestor.
Law of Succession
The general pattern of correspondence between fossil and living forms from the same locale came to be know as
Law of Succession
How populations change through time following modifications in their environment, and how new species come into being
Evolutionary Biology
Does not look to the future. Creates change on individuals and not the population.
Natural Selection
Become predominant in the host because they enjoy a short-term advantage in survival and reproduction.
Lethal strains of HIV
First recognized in 1981
AIDS
HIV's genome and life cycle are similar to those of the SIV's, a family of viruses that infect a variety of primates.
Where HIV came from
_____derived from one of the SIV's and that the global AIDS epidemic started when this SIV moved from its primate host into humans.
HIV
This virus was probably transmitted from sooty mangabeys to humans
HIV-2
Virus which is causing the AIDS epidemic
HIV-1
SIV that infects chimpanzees was transmitted from chimps to humans, where it evolved into_____
HIV-1
Species are immutable, independent, and recent.
Theory of Special Creation
A useless or rudimentary version of a body part that has an important function in other, closely allied, species.
Vestigial Structures
are an extinct group of marine invertebrate animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda. These molluscs are more closely related to living coleoids (i.e. octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish) than they are to shelled nautiloids such as the living Nautilus species.
• Shell reduction over time
Ammonoides
- a family of extinct mammals belonging to the order Perissodactyla, the order that includes horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs. Superficially they looked rather like rhinos, although they were not true rhinos and are probably most closely related to horses. They lived around 56–34 million years ago, until the very close of the Eocene.
• Teeth, bones, size of __________ are convincing transitional forms
Titanotheres
Small body size. Nasal opening grew, which also started the formation of a nasal bone known as tusks. The huge nasal opening at the top of the head is where the trunk formed.
Ancient Elephants
Phylogenetic tree =?
Evolutionary Tree
originated from West Africa
Origin of humans was in Africa, because every strain of ____ could be found in Africa
HIV
similar bone structures in different species
Structural Homology
? = fossil genes (genes that no longer produce proteins)
• Distribution of six human ______ of various ages shows similarities and how close other species are related to humans.
Pseudogenes
has 4000 functional genes, 6 fossil genes. airborne and very deadly. Can survive on its own
Tuberculosis
has 1600 functional genes, 1100 fossil genes. • There were a lot of genes that ______ no longer needed. does not transmit as easily, cannot live on its own. Needs a host.
Leprosy
Claire Patterson's prediction of the age of the earth, was based off of Lord Kelvin's prediction, which is based off of Darwin's prediction of how old england is, and that is based off of Georges- Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon prediction, and so on...
Standing on the shoulders of giants
Vertebrate forelimbs or any other structure which is similar in different species, but has different functions in each unique species.
Structural Homologies
If humans had a different genetic code from chimpanzees, we would not have been susceptible to the chimpanzee virus that became HIV. This susceptibility shows evidence towards a common ancestor.
Molecular Homologies
Embryos from different vertebrates show striking similarities early in development, such as pharyngeal pouches and a tail.
Developmental Homology
Determining the ________ was important to evolutionary theory, because it supports uniformitarianism or that geological processes taking place now operated similarly in the past. And to disprove the theory of special creation.
Age of the Earth
Used to test Darwin's hypothesis of common ancestry. 6 _______ older than 11 million years old. between human, chimp, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus monkey, capuchin monkey, and hamster
Pseudogenes
Breeders select a desirable trait in their plants and animals and increase the frequency of organisms with that trait.
Artificial Selection
individuals within population vary
Postulate 1
The variations among individuals are, at least in part, passed from parents to offspring
Postulate 2
In every generation, some individuals are more successful at survival and reproduction
Postulate 3
The survival and reproduction of individuals are not random; instead they are tied to the variation among individuals. Those who have variations that are better at survival and reproductions will be favored by Natural Selection.
Postulate 4
finches on the Galapagos Islands have variation in beaks to eat specific sized and hardened seeds.
Postulate 1
how professor Krupa breed Modena and American giant runt pigeons to make a generation of polish lynx
Postulate 2
In other words, individuals in a population vary in their biological fitness. In other words, some individuals in a population produce more offspring than can survive to reproduce. This leads to competition between individuals resulting from populations producing far more offspring than can survive.
Postulate 3
A variation of finches who favor an island with a large seeds, will reproduce until they have a generation with larger beaked finches to crack open the large seeds.
Postulate 4
results in individuals being better adapted to their environment
Natural Selection
an acquired characteristic that increases the fitness of an individual compared to other individuals without the trait.
Adaptation
the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in nature
Darwinian fitness
The number of offspring produced by an individual can measure ________.

The amount of generations produced can measure ______

Best measure of _______ is the number of copies of your genes left in future generations.
Fitness
the number of offspring produced by an individual. One way to measure fitness.
Reproductive Success
Which of the following best defines inclusive fitness?
A) The number of your offspring that survive to maturity as well as the number of their offspring (your grand kids) that survive to maturity
B) The number of your offspring, your siblings offspring, and your cousins’ offspring that survive to maturity
C) The number of your direct descendants that survive to maturity
D) All of the above
B
Vestigial body parts are examples of what two kinds of changes in evolution:
Macroevolution and microevolution
________ are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint, such as the hand, knee, and foot. Functionally, they act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect. The presence of the ________ bone holds the tendon slightly farther away from the center of the joint and thus increases its moment arm. _________ bones also prevent the tendon from flattening into the joint as tension increases and therefore also maintain a more consistent moment arm through a variety of possible tendon loads.
Sesamoid bone
Fence lizard is a great example of __________. Each lizard has scales that match their environment. Being tan for the sand or black for the rocks.
Natural Selection
Black rocks in the environment impose change on the organisms living there. Black mice, black lizards, black grasshoppers, black rattle snakes. White sands in the environment impose change on the organisms living there. White praying mantis, white lizard, gophers and gopher mounds
Natural Selection
• Gradual evolution results from small genetic changes acted upon by natural selection
• The evolution of new species from existing species, macroevolution, can be explained by natural selection acting on individuals, which is microevolution
The Modern Synthesis
As a result of mutation creating new alleles, and segregation and independent assortment shuffling alleles into new combinations, individuals within populations are variable for many traits
Postulate 1 of Natural Selection
Individuals pass their alleles on to their offspring intact.
Postulate 2 of Natural Selection
In every generation, some individuals are more successful at surviving and reproducing than others
Postulate 3 of Natural Selection
The individuals that survive and reproduce, or who reproduce the most, are those with the alleles and allelic combinations that best adapt them to their environment.
Postulate 4 of Natural Selection
Only when the survivors of selection pass their successful _____ to their offspring, via genotypes that help determine ______, does natural selection cause populations to change from one generation to the next
Phenotypes
_____is always a generation behind any changes in the environment
Evolution
Gophers of white sands have a white belly and a darker back to act as a _______ . Same thing for orange gophers in Oklahoma
Camouflage
acts on individuals, but its consequences occurs in populations
Natural Selection
• _________ acts on phenotypes, but evolution consists of changes in allele frequency
• _________ is not forward looking
• New traits can evolve, even though _________ acts on existing traits
Natural Selection
• __________ does not lead to perfection
• _________ is nonrandom, but is not progressive
• Fitness is not circular
• ________ acts on individuals, not for the good of the species
Natural Selection
CHOOSE 2: How much time should be spent where?
Avoid death and predators
Find Food
Reproduce
The struggle for existence and
The triangle of life
Darwinian fitness is the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its environment. Similarly, ________ says the same thing except it is not random and there are conclusive reasons as to why the individual was successful over another individual
Reproductive Success
The male mosquito fish is more likely to mate if he has a large anal fin, but is slower and easily hunted down if he has a large anal tail. This is an example of where ________ does not lead to perfection.
Natural Selection
• A shared derived character
Synapomorphy
• In a phylogenetic analysis, _________ are used to define clades and distinguish them from out-groups.
• Ex: the uniquely modified hind wings found in all families of winged flies.
Synapomorphy
• Similarity in the characters found in different species that is due to:
o Convergent evolution
o Parallelism
o Reversal (reverse mutations)
Homoplasy
All ___________ are homologous structures, but not all homologous structures are ____________.
synapomorphies
________ are species that you cannot easily tell apart.
cryptic species
• An inescapable compromise between one trait and another
• It is impossible for the perfect organism to evolve
• Phenotypes reflect compromises between competing demands
Evolutionary Trade-offs
1. _______ knew nothing of mutations or how variation came about
2. _______ knew nothing about genetics or how variation was passed on to offspring
3. The age of the earth was not known and thought to be 15 to 20 million years.
Darwin
Evolutionary history of a group of species is called ________
Phylogeny
_______ is a graphical summary of the history of a group of species.
Phylogenetic tree
_______ is a cluster of synapomorphies on a phylogenetic tree. Tetrapoda is a ________ which links limbs, amniotic egg, hole in skull below eye socket, extensive changes in skeleton, hole in skull in front of eye socket, and S-shaped neck, short forelimbs, feathers together for Frogs, Salamanders, Mammals, Turtles, Snakes, Lizards, Crocodiles, and birds
Cladograms or Clade
_______ ________ occurs when natural selection favors similar structures as solutions to problems posed by similar environments. Octopus, Ray-finned fish, Crocodile, and Hippopotamus all have morphological similar eyes and skulls which evolved independently in different lineages due to _________ _________
Convergent evolution
When a DNA sequence is mutated to have one or more different coding letters, and then mutates back to the original DNA sequence. This _______ or "back-mutation" can remove synapomorphies.
Reversal
• A criterion for selecting among alternative patterns or explanations based on minimizing the total amount of change or complexity.
• What is the most likely, simplest of observed events in a phylogenetic tree
Parsimony
Convergent evolution and reversals give a simpler and more likely explanation of a trait being developed by two different species. Such as the origin of the camera eye between the octopus and vertebrate.
Parsimony
Naming schemes that are based on evolutionary relationships are referred to as phylogenetic or _________ approaches.
Cladistic
The set of species (or populations) descended from a common ancestor
Monophyletic group
A set of species that includes a common ancestor and some, but not all, of it's descendants.
Paraphyletic group
___________ pertain to the various structures in different species having the same appearance, structure or function but have evolved separately, thus do not share common ancestor.
Analogous structures
_______ is the only process that creates completely new alleles and new genes.
Mutation
______ are the raw material of evolution
Mutations
A ________ is any change in DNA. Genes are made of DNA, so changes in DNA create changes in genes.
Mutation
______ are stretches of DNA that code for a distinctive type of RNA or protein product.
Genes
_______ are versions of the same gene that differ in their base sequence.
Alleles
_______ is an alteration at a single point in the base sequence of a gene. How sickle-cell hemoglobin was caused by a single amino acid change at position number 6 in the protein chain, which is 146 amino acids long. Instead of having glutamic acid at this position, the sickling allele has valine.
Point Mutation
______ are caused by one of two processes: random errors in DNA synthesis or random errors in the repair of sites damaged by chemical mutagens of high-energy radiation. Both changes result from reactions catalyzed by DNA polymerase.
Point Mutations
_______ introduces a great deal of genetic variation into populations in every generation
Mutation
_______ _______ can create new genes because it creates new DNA.
Gene Duplication
______ _______ occur often enough to be an important source of genetic variation in populations over time
Gene Duplications
Fetal ______ has a higher affinity for oxygen molecules than adult ______. As a result, oxygen molecules are efficiently transferred from the mother to the fetus during pregnancy.
hemoglobin
DNA sequences that are homologous to functioning genes, but are not transcribed.
Pseudogenes
Organisms that have more than two chromosome sets are said to be _______. Ex: tetraploid 4n, hexaploid 6n, octoploid 8n, or higher.
Polyploid
_______ individuals have one or more extra copies of every gene in the genome.
Polyploid
______ is a key source of genetic variation because it produces hundreds of thousands or duplicated genes.
Polyploidy
______ is caused by the failure of homologous chromosomes segregating during meiosis 1 or if sister chromatids do not separate completely during meiosis 2, the resulting cells may have double the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. More common in plants during mitotic dell divisions because of self-fertilization
Polyploidy
_____ may lock groups of alleles into tightly linked "supergenes", polyploidization can lead to the formation of new species, and genome duplication provides massive amounts of redundant gene sequences that may then diversify.
Inversion mutations
The types homologies that are useful in estimating phylogenies are called ______
synapomorphies
Fitness of _______ – fitness of ________ = S
favored phenotype, mutated phenotype
If S = 0, then mutated phenotype equals fitness of favored phenotype
If S = 1, then mutated phenotype is completely lethal
A _______ (4n) plant will mutate and separate itself from the rest of the 2n plants. It can no longer reproduce with 2n plants.
Polyploid
• Flipping of a chromosome segment, so order of genes along the chromosome changes
• Breaks in DNA caused by radiation or other insults
• Alleles inside the inversion are likely transmitted together, as a unit.
Inversion mutations or chromosome inversion
• Base pair substitutions in DNA sequences
• Chance errors during DNA synthesis or during repair of damaged DNA
• Creates new alleles
Point mutation
• Duplication of a short stretch of DNA, creating an extra copy of the sequence
• Unequal crossing over during meiosis or retrotransposition
• Redundant new genes may acquire new functions, by mutation
Gene duplications
• Addition of a complete set of chromosomes
• Errors in meiosis or (in plants) mitosis
• May create new species; massive gene duplication
Genome Duplication