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55 Cards in this Set

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Evolution

Cumulative genetic change in a population over time

Population

Group of individuals of the same species that interbreed and interact

Community

Group of different individuals

Phenotype

Expressed traits (physical and behavioral)

Phenotype Plasticity

The ability to express a different value of a trait in a different enviroment

Natural Selection

"Survival of the fittest", individuals with favorable traits will go on to breed and pass them along

Variation

Differences between individuals in a population

Adaptation

Change over time that makes a species fit into its enviroment

Homology

2 species change in DIFFERENT ways from a common point or ancestor

Analogous

2 different species evolve the SAME way

Homologous Structures

Similar or the same trait found in two or more species because they both inherited it from a common ancestor

Developmental Homologies

Similar embryos in species

Genetic Homologies

Similarity in DNA sequences

Vestigial Structures

Reduced or incomplete structures with no function or a NEW function

Hypothesis

An idea or explanation for a pattern that is testable through experiments and observations.

Theory

Rigorously tested statement of a generalprincipal that explains a pattern

Convergent Evolution

The process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments

Plato

Imperfections reflect the real physical world

Aristotle

Created the "Great Chain of Being" from least complex to most complex, (Dirt to Humans)

Carl Linnaeus

Created Taxonomy, species that are similar

James Hutten and Charles Lyell

Gradual geographical change over time

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

Acquired characteristics, individual gains a trait in their life-time and pass it down

Thomas Malthus

More offspring are born than survive

Fitness

Number of viable offspring produced

Adaptive Radiation

Rapid diversification of a lineage when it encounters new habitats or immigration

To Adapt

Process which populations evolve through natural selection

Local Adaptation

Pattern of different populations evolve to match their enviroment by natural selection

Mutation

Permanent change in an organisms DNA

Adaptive Evolution

Increase in frequency of beneficial alleles and decrease in deleterious allelesdue to selection

Allele Frequency

Rate at which a specific allele appears within a population

Bottleneck Effect

Genetic drift when there is a sudden reduction in number of alleles in a population and death is random in respect to phenotypes

Founder Effect

Occurs when a small group of individuals establish a new population

Stabilizing Selection

Favors average phenotype, extreme phenotype's at disadvantage (less variation)

Directional Selection

Shift in the average phenotype in one direction, favoring one extreme

Disruptive Selection

Favors extreme phenotype's, selects against intermediate traits (more variation)

Balancing Selection

Also a kind of diversifying selection, it maintains polymorphism

Frequency-dependent Selection

Fitness of a phenotype is determined by itʼs relative frequency compared to other phenotypes in the populations

Negative-frequency

favoring rare phenotypes

Genetic Drift

Random change in allele frequency, increasing OR decreasing fitness

Genetic Flow

Change in allele frequency that occurs when individuals leave one population and join another population (may increase or decrease fitness depending on circumstances)

Half-life

Time for half of parent isotope to decay to particular daughterisotope

Nucleotides

The monomer unit of DNA

Gene

Unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and determines different characteristics

Point Mutation

Only one nucleotide is changed

Silent Mutation

Change in nucleotide does not change the amino acid specified by the codon

Missense Mutation

Replacement, change in the nucleotide changes the amino acid

Nonsense Mutation

Change in nucleotide results in early stop codon

Frameshift Mutation

Addition or subtraction of a nucleotide shifting everything else

Eukaryotes

Multiple chromosomes

Autosomes

The other 22 chromosomes not sex chromosomes

Chromosome

A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes

Haploid

half of the amount of chromosomes

Ploidy

number of chromosomes

Diploid

Paired chromosomes from each parent

Uniformitarianism
The theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes.