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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. what is microbiology?
2. microorganisms are also called
3. what organisms are studied in micro? they are not....
4. what is mycology? phycology? parasitology?
5. what is biotechnology?
1. the biology of organisms that can't be seen with the naked eye
2. germs/bugs
3. viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa, helminths (not cellular organisms, they are pathogens and reproduce in living cells)
4. study of fungi, study of algae, study of protozoa and helminthes
5. the uses of microbes for human benefit.
1. microbes are involved in...
2.what are pathogens?
3. what are some characteristics of cells?
4. what are some characteristics of virus?
5. who was leeuvenhoek?
1. nutrient production, energy flow, decomposition, production of foods, drugs, and vaccines, causing disease
2. disease causing agents
3. ribosomes, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria
4. envelope and capsule
5. first to observe living microbes, father of the microscope.
1. Leeuwenhoek's single lens magnified how much?
2. early belief that some forms of like could arise from vital forces present in nonliving and decomposing matter.
3. who was louis pasteur.
4. who was robert koch
1. 300x
2.spontaneous generation
3. started pasterization (microbes caused fermentation and spoilage) came up with germ theory of disease,discovered anaerobiosis and abiogensis (rabies vaccine)
4. established experimental steps to show that a specific microbe causes a disease and pure culture methods (anthrax, TB, cholera causes)
1. who are 2 major contributors of pathogens and germ theory?
2. who is joseph lister?
3. system for organizing, classifying and naming living things
4. who do you name microorganisms.
5. how does it work?
1. pasteur, koch
2. helped developed aseptic techniques
3. taxonomy
4. binomical nomenclature
5. 2 names genus (CAPS) species lowercase, italicized or underlined
1. 3 domains
2. what is evolution?
3. natural relatedness bt groups of organisms
4. what is a monomer
5. what is a polymer? they are together by
1. bacteria (prokaryotic), archaea (pro), eukarya (eukarotic)
2. when living things change gradually over millions of years
3. phylogeny
4. repeating subunit
5. a chain of monomers (covalent bonds)
1. the loss of water in a polymerization reaction is called
2. the breaking of polymers into its units, by adding water (ex. digestion)
3. 4 families of macromolecules
4. general formula of carbs
5. a monomer of carbs are called.. ex?
1. dehydration synthesis
2. hydrolysis
3. carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
4. CnH2nO
5. monosaccharide (glucose/fructose)
1. ex of a disaccharide
2. a polymer of carbs is caled a ...ex?
3. the subunits are linked by?
4. function of carbs
5. what is dextran (carb)
1. sucrose
2. polysacchirde
3. glycosidic bonds
4. structural support, nutrient, and energy stores
5. secreted by bac. to form slimelayers (biofilms)
1. what is agar?
2. what is chitin?
3. what is peptidoglycan?
4. what is Lipopolysacchaide?
5. what family is made out of C and H chains
1. used to make solid culture media
2.major component of many fungi
3. in bacterial cell walls, made of peptides
4. component of gram negative cell walls
5. lipids
1. functions of lipids
2. what does a triglycerides have in it?
3. what does a phospholipid have in it?
4. what does steroids do?
5. monomer of proteins are called
1. triglycerides (energy storage), phosoholipid (major cell membrane), steroid (cell membrane component..if there is no cell wall, it has steroids; hormones)
2. 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids
3. 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, 1 phospate (charged head)
4. help to stabilize membrane
5. aa's
1. a polymer in protein is called
2. subunits linked by
3. functions of proteins
4. DNA is made up of (which is made up of)
5. the backbone is made up of, ATGC?
1. peptide, polypeptide, protein
2. peptide bonds
3. support, enzymes (catalysts), transport (in cell membrane), defense (immune system-antibodies), movement (actin and myosin)
4. nucleotides
5. sugar and phosphates; nitrogen
1. A and T forms how many bonds.. G and C?
2. the adenosine in ATP is made out of
3. what is ATP function?
4. what are the 5 I's of culturing microbes
1. 2 H bonds, 3 H bonds
2. adenine and ribose
3. transfer and storage of energy
4. inoculation, incubation, lsolation, inspection, identification
1. when you introduce a sample into a container of media
2. under controlled conditions that allow growth
3. separating one species from another
4. examine the culture
5. analyzing
inoculation, incubation, lsolation, inspection, identification
1. a mound of cells
2. temperature-controlled chamber at appropriate temperature and atmosphere
3. observation; macroscopic and microscopic
4. macroscopic and microscopic appearance, biochemical tests, genetic characteristics, immunological testing
5. visible (macroscopic) growth of microorganisms in or on a medium
1. colony
2. incubation
3. inspection
4. identification
5. culture
1. macroscopic cluster of cells appearing on a solid surface; each arising from a single cell
2. transfer and culturing a ”tiny” sample of a “well-defined” isolated colony
3. contains a single species
4. contains more than one species
5. contains “unwanted” species
1. colony
2. subculture
3. pure culture
4. mixed culture
5. contaminated culture
1. what 3 ways can media be classified?
2. 3 types of physical states of media?
3. most commonly used solidifying agent
4. what media contains pure organic and inorganic compounds in an exact chemical formula
5. what media contains at least one ingredient that is not chemically definable
1. physical, chemical composition, functional type
2. liquid (broth), semisolid (w/solidifying agent), solid
3. agar
4. synthetic media
5. complex or nonsynthetic
1. what media grows a broad range of microbes
2. what media contains complex organic substances such as blood that is required by picky microbes
3. what media contains 1 or more agents that inhibit growth of some and encourage others
4. what media allows the growth of several and displays visable differences.
1. general purpose
2. enriched
3. selective
4. differential
1. what media contain substances that absorb oxygen; used for growing anaerobic bacteria
2. what media contain sugar for fermentation, converted to acids, and a pH indicator to show the reaction; basis for identifying bacteria and fungi
3. what media preserve specimens for a period of time
1. reducing media
2. carb fermationation media
3. transport media
1. what is a fastidious bacteria?
2. how are cultures disposed of?
3. when an object is magnified in size so that it becomes visible to the observer
4. the ability to see fine details
5. angle of light passing through convex surface of glass changes is called
1. a bacteria that requires growth factors and complex nurtrients.
2. steam sterilization or incineration
3. magnification
4. resolving power (resolution)
5. refraction
1. what is the final image is a product of the separate magnifying powers of the two lenses.
2. Visible light wavelength is
3. Numerical aperture of lens ranges from
4. Oil immersion objectives resolution
5. what type of light microscope is the most widely used, specimen is darker than surrounding field
1. total magnification
2. 400-750nm
3. .1 to 1.25
4. .2nanometers
5. bright field
1. what type of light microscope is when brightly illuminated specimens surrounded by dark field
2. what transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light
3. what microscope is helpful for diagnosing infections?
4. 2 types of electron microscopes?
1. dark field
2. phase contrast
3. fluorescence microscopes
4. transmission electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes
1. which electron microscope transmits electrons through the specimen; darker areas represent thicker, denser parts and lighter areas indicate more transparent, less dense parts
2. which electron microscope provides detailed three-dimensional view
3. which specimen prep allow examination of characteristics of live cells. what does it find out?
4. what specimen prep are made by drying & heating a film of specimen.
1. TEM
2. SEM
3. wet mount and hanging drop mounts (movement, shape, arrangement)
4. fixed mounts
1. what is a smear used for?
2. which dye is basic and has a (+) charge?
3. which dye is acidic with a (-) charge?
4. what is a simple stain?
5. what is a differential stain? (ex)
6. what stains are special?
1. to permit visualization of cells or cell parts
2. cationic dyes
3. anionic dyes
4. 1 dye is used
5. use of a primary stain and a counterstain to distinguish cell types or parts (gram stain)
6. capsule and flagellar stain
1. which stain is the most universal technique for bacteria?
2. the human body exists in a state of what kind of equilibrium?
3. the interaction bt humans and microorganisms involve what?
4. the microbes that engage in mutual associations w/ humans and dont cause them harm are called
5. a condition in which pathogenic microbes penetrate host defenses, enter tissues, and multiply
1. gram stain
2. dynamic
3. development of biofilms
4. normal flora (resident)
5. infection
1. an infectious agent is called
2. an infection that causes damage or disruption to tissues and organs
3. what parts of the body are microbe free?
4. microbes that occupy the body for only short periods are called
5. microbes that become established are called
1. pathogen
2. infectious disease
3. internal organs, tissues, and fluids
4. transients
5. residents
1. when Bacterial flora benefit host by preventing overgrowth of harmful microbes this is called (compettion)
2. it occur when normal flora is introduced to a site that was previously sterile (one of your own causes an infection)
3. what is the role of flora?
4. what changes flora?
5. what is a probiotic? (ex)
1. microbial antagonism
2. endogenous infection
3. create an environment that may prevent infections and can enhance host defenses
4. Antibiotics, dietary changes, and disease
5. introducing known microbes back into the body (dairy products)
1. what are the stages of the developement of an infection?
2. what are capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normal immune defenses
3. what cause disease when the host’s defenses are compromised or when they grow in part of the body that is not natural to them
4. the severity of the disease depends ot the
5. what is the characteristic or structure that contributes to the ability of a microbe to cause disease
1. adhesion (sticking), invasion (spread out), multiplication, infection of target, disease\
2. true pathogen
3. opportunistic (doesnt cause harm under normal circumstances
4. virulence
5. virulence factor
1. what is the Minimum number of microbes required for infection to proceed
2. time from initial contact with the infectious agent to the appearance of first symptoms
3. vague feelings of discomfort; nonspecific complaints
4. multiplies at high levels, becomes well-established; more specific signs and symptoms
5. period when as person begins to respond to the infection, symptoms decline
1. infectious dose (ID)
2. incubation period
3. prodromal stage
4. period of invasion
5. convalescent period
1. which pattern of infection is when microbes enter the body and remains confined to a specific tissue
2. what is it called when infection spreads to several sites and tissue fluids usually in the bloodstream\
3. what is it called when infectious agent breaks loose from a local infection and is carried to other tissues
4. what is it called when several microbes grow simultaneously at the infection site .. aka
1. localized infection
2. systemic infection
3. focal infection
4. mixed infection
1. what is the inital infection called?
2. what is it called when another infection by a different microbe enters
3. what type of infection comes on rapidly, with severe but short lived effects
4. what type of infection progresses and persists over a long period of time
1. primary infection
2. secondary infection
3. acute infection
4. chronic infection
1. what is it when after the initial symptoms in certain chronic diseases, the microbe can periodically become active and produce a recurrent disease
2. a person with a latent infection who sheds the infectious agent
3. long-term or permanent damage to tissues or organs ex: (strep can cause heart probs)
4. primary habitat of pathogen in the natural world (ex)
5. individual or object from which an infection is actually acquired
1. latency
2. chronic carrier
3. sequelae
4. reservoir (human)
5. source
1. when a live animal that transmits an infectious agent from one host to another (ex)
2. what kind actively participate in a pathogen’s life cycle
3. what kind not necessary to the life cycle of an infectious agent and merely transports it without being infected
4. An infection indigenous to animals but naturally transmissible to humans... can u eradicate?
1. vector (mosquitoes)
2. biological vectors (malaria)
3. mechanical (disease on the legs of a fly.. it is not infected with the disease
4. zoonosis (the cow's e.coli is ok for them, but not for humans NO
1. what is epidemiology?
2. when you collecting, analyzing, and reporting data on rates of occurrence, mortality, morbidity and transmission of infections
3. what does the cdc do?
4. total number of existing cases with respect to the entire population
1. The study of the frequency and distribution of disease and health-related factors in human populations
2. surveillance
3. keeping track of infectious diseases nationwide
4. prevalence
1. the total # of deaths in a pop due to a certain disease
2. # of people afflicted w/ a certain disease
3. when a disease that exhibits a relatively steady frequency over a long period of time in a particular region
4. when occasional cases pop up all of a sudden
5. when prevalence of a disease is increasing beyond what is expected
1. mortality rate
2. morbidity rate
3. endemic
4. sporadic
5. epidemic
1. what an epidemic is across continents (ex)
1. HIV