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120 Cards in this Set

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Any change, other than injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body, is a ___________.
disease
What is the difference between infection and disease?
An infection is just inside the body, but a disease is not only inside but also causes damage.
A _______ defense is always on.
nonspecific
What are three ways diseases can come about?
by agents, such as bacteria or viruses
by materials in environment
by genetics
What kind of materials in the environment can cause disease?
UV rays, pollution, etc.
Disease-causing agents are called ____________.
pathogens
State the germ theory of disease.
infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms called germs.
The two scientists whose work led to the germ theory of disease were _________ and __________.
Koch and Pasteur
Lyme disease is caused by ___________.
bacteria
What spreads Lyme disease?
deer tick
What are scientists trying to identify when they use Koch's postulates?
the microorganisms that causes a specific disease
What are the steps, in order, of Koch's postulates?
1. pathogen identified
2. pathogen grown in pure culture
3. pathogen injected into healthy lab mouse
4. healthy mouse becomes sick
5. pathogen identified
Are most of the bacteria and yeast that are found in the body harmful and disease-causing?
no
List the two ways that bacteria can produce illness.
destroy cells as they grow
release toxins
Influenza is a type of ___________.
virus
Anthrax is a type of _________.
bacterium
Malaria is a type of _________.
protist
Tapeworm is a type of _____________.
worm
Athlete's foot is a type of _________.
fungus
List three ways that infectious diseases are spread.
1. physical contact
2. contaiminated food and water
3. infected animals
Animals that carry pathogens from person to person are called ________.
vectors
Does thorough hand washing help prevent the spread of many pathogens?
yes
Compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of humans or animals are called _________.
antibiotics
____________ work by interferring with the cellular processes of microorganisms and many are produced by living organims.
antibiotic
How do antiviral drugs fight viral disease?
inhibit viruses to invade cells and multiply
The body's main defense against pathogens is the _________.
immune system
The ______ defense prevents pathogens from entering the body and doesn't discriminate, it kills everything.
nonspecific
The ______ defense destroys harmful pathogens that enter the body and only hunts what it recognizes.
specific
What is the job of the body's first line of defense?
keep pathogens out of the body.
The first line of defense guards against _________.
infection
What are the four components of the body's first line of defense?
skin, sweat, mucus, tears
The body's most important nonspecific defense is the _________.
skin
How does mucus help protect the body from disease?
traps pathogens by getting particles to stick and then become destroyed or expelled
Body secretions contain an enzyme called _________, that kills bacteria.
lysozyme
When does the second line of defense come into play?
when tissue is damaged caused by injury or infection
The second line of defense tries to stop _________.
disease
The ________ response is a nonspecific reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection.
inflammatory response
White blood cells called __________ engulf and destroy bacteria.
phagocytes
Why does an increase in the number of white blood cells indicated that the body is dealing with a serious infection?
it shows that they are fighting an infection
An elevated body temperature is called a ___________.
fever
A _______ kills many pathogens and speeds up the action of white blood cells.
fever
Interferon is the protein that helps fight _________ infection.
viral
What is the immune response?
defense against a particular disease-causing agent
Describe the primary and secondary immune responses.
1. primary- recognize and produce antigen
2. secondary- faster, stronger response with no disease
A substance that triggers the immune response is known as an __________.
antigen
What are some examples of antigens?
viruses, bacteria
All cells have antigens...TRUE? FALSE?
true
What are the two different immune responses?
humoral immunity/ antibody-mediated immunity
&
cell-mediated immunity
_______ immunity is a response to pathogens in body fluids, depends on lympocytes, involves antibodies, and involves plasma cells.
humoral immunity
A protein that helps destroy pathogens is called an
antibody
Antigens and antibodies must work like a __________.
lock and key
What are the affects of the antigen binding site?
the pathogen can no longer infect anything else; blocks antibody
one antigen can bind with only two pathogens, this will create a clump that is very noticeable to the rest of the immune system
What are the two types of blood cells?
Red blood cells
white blood cells
Why does an increase in the number of white blood cells indicated that the body is dealing with a serious infection?
it shows that they are fighting an infection
An elevated body temperature is called a ___________.
fever
A _______ kills many pathogens and speeds up the action of white blood cells.
fever
Interferon is the protein that helps fight _________ infection.
viral
What is the immune response?
defense against a particular disease-causing agent
Describe the primary and secondary immune responses.
1. primary- recognize and produce antigen
2. secondary- faster, stronger response with no disease
A substance that triggers the immune response is known as an __________.
antigen
What are some examples of antigens?
viruses, bacteria
All cells have antigens...TRUE? FALSE?
true
What are the two different immune responses?
humoral immunity/ antibody-mediated immunity
&
cell-mediated immunity
_______ immunity is a response to pathogens in body fluids, depends on lympocytes, involves antibodies, and involves plasma cells.
humoral immunity
A protein that helps destroy pathogens is called an
antibody
Antigens and antibodies must work like a __________.
lock and key
What are the affects of the antigen binding site?
the pathogen can no longer infect anything else; blocks antibody
one antigen can bind with only two pathogens, this will create a clump that is very noticeable to the rest of the immune system
What are the two types of blood cells?
Red blood cells
white blood cells
What are the two types of white blood cells? And what kind of immunity do they carry?
phagocytes- nonspecific immunity
lymphocytes- specific immunity
What kind of cells do lymphocytes make? And what kind of immunity do they make?
B cells- humoral/antibody mediated immunity
T cells- cell-mediated immunity
CTL-kill infected cells
Helper T cell- help B and CTL to work
What does B cells make? And what do they, in turn, make?
plasma-make antibodies
memory cells- remember the antigen
Plasma cells are specialized _______ cells.
B
What happens once the body has been exposed to a pathogen?
memory B cells reduce the chance that the disease could develop a second time
Cell mediated immunity is a defense against ___________ cells, involving ____________ cells.
the body's own cells
killer T cells
Cell-mediated immunity is particularly important for diseases caused by ______________.
viral pathogens
What is a vaccination?
injection of weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity
How do vaccines work?
stimulate immune system to produce specific antibodies
What type of immunity is due to antigens and lasts for life?
active
What type of immunity is due to antibiotics and lasts for a short time?
passive
An overaction of the immune system caused by antigens is called an
allergy
An allergy means you are ___________.
hypersensitive
Allergies result in the overproduction of ____________.
histamines
When allergens bind to mass cells, the mast cells release chemicals known as ____________, there is an increased flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area, and sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, and other symptoms occur.
histamines
A chronic respiratory disease in which air passages become narrower than normal is called ____________.
asthma
What produces an autoimmune disease?
when the immune system makes a mistake and attacks the body's own cells
Rheumatoid arthritis attacks the ____________.
tissues around the joints
Type 1 diabetes attacks the _________.
pancreas
Myasthenia gravis attacks the ___________.
neuromuscular junction
Multiple sclerosis attacks the __________.
neurons in brain and spinal cord
______ is a type of disease in which the immune disease is weakened by infection.
AIDS
What does AIDS stand for?
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
List some of the diseases that may be symptoms of AIDS.
pneumocystis carinii
kaposis sarcoma
What cells are attacked by HIV?
helper T cells
HIV is spread by contact with __________.
bodily fluid
Any sexual contact carries some risk of contracting ________.
HIV
A ________ is anything that increases the chance of disease or injury.
risk factor
Both heredity and environmental factors can affect your health. TRUE? FALSE?
true
_______ includes the number and concentration of gases and the nature and amount of tiny particles.
air quality
Why can overexposure to carbon monoxide be fatal?
ir prevents hemoglobin from bonding to oxygen because it carbon monoxide binds more fully to it.
______ is a highly reactive form of oxygen that is produced by vehicle exhaust and factory emissions.
ozone
Allergic reactions can be triggered by __________.
airborne particulates
What has probably been the most important factor in nearly doubling human life expectancy over the last century or so?
providing safe drinking water
__________ include human and animal wastes and chemicals.
water pollutant
The intentional use of biological agents to disable or kill individuals is called _________.
bioterrorism
Why could the release of smallpox virus cause serious problems?
almost no one has been vaccinated for the virus in decades
________ is generally a life threatening disease, characterized by cells multiplying uncontrollably and destroying healthy tissue.
cancer
When do cancers begin?
when something goes wrong with control of cell growth and reproduction
A mass of growing tissue is known as a ____.
tumor
Are all tumors cancerous?
no
The spreading of cancer is called?
metatasis
A ___ tumor does not spread to surrounding healthy tissue or to other parts of the body.
benign
A _____ tumor can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue.
malignant
List three ways that cancer cells can cause illness as they spread.
abbsorb nutrients needed by other cells
block nerve connections
prevent the organs they invade from functioning properly
Gene deects may be __________, _______, or the result of ______________, which may occur ________ or be produced by ____________.
inherited
caused by viruses or environment
the result of mutations
occur spontaneously
produced by chemicals or radiation
Chemical compounds that are known to cause cancer are called _______.
carcinogens
Why is it important to detect cancer early?
it will be easier to treat
Give three reasons it is important to eat a healthful diet.
body systems work at their best
prevent obesity
protect from cancer
For most people, adequate rest means getting about __ hours of sleep each night.
8
__________ can cause a variety of respiratory conditions as well as cancers of lung, mouth, and throat.
smoking
Discovering a disease early does not make it easier to treat?
no