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147 Cards in this Set

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List the two notable features of mammals.
hair
mammary glands
Which of the following are characteristics of mammals:
breathe air
three-chambered heart
ectotherm
endotherm
breathe air-lungs
endotherm
What are the four parts of the mammalian four chambered heart?
right atrium
left atrium
right ventricles
left ventricles
Where is the atrium located? The ventricle?
atrium- top
ventricle- bottom
What are three characteristics help scientists identify mammalian fossils?
a. lower jaw consisting of large teeth bearing bone connected to the skull
b. complex teeth that are replaced just once in a lifetime
c. distinctive features of the limbs and backbones
The ancestors of mammals diverged from ancient ____________ during the Permian Period.
reptiles
During the Cretaceous period, mammals were probably __________.
nocturnal
TRUE/FALSE: After dinosaurs disappeared, mammals increased in size and filled many new niches.
true
List the two ways in which mammals conserve body heat.
subcutaneous fat
hair
Mammals have a _______ rate of metabolism.
high
How are mammals able to rid themselves of excess heat? Why are these methods effective?
panting and sweat glands
because the excess water produced evaporates
The ability of mammals to regulate their body heat from within is an example of ___________.
homeostasis
Carnivores have mostly __________ teeth. Herbivores have mostly __________ teeth.
canine
molar
Animals that are omnivores consume ________ and ________.
meat
plants
As mammals evolved, the form and function of their ___________ and _________ became adapted to eat foods other than insects.
jaws
teeth
What kind of teeth adaptation are these:
1. pointed teeth used for piercing, gripping, and tearing; meant for meat
2. chisellike incisors used for cutting, gnawing, and grooming
3. flattened teeth that crush and grind food
1. canines
2. incisors
3. molars and premolars
In which type of animal would you expect to find sharp canine teeth?
carnivores
How are herbivores' molars adapted for their diet?
they have flattened, broad molars and premolars
Carnivores have a shorter _______ than herbivores.
intestine
In cows, newly swallowed food is stored and processed in the ______. Symbiotic bacteria in the rumen digest the _________ of most plant tissues. The cow _______ the food from the rumen to its mouth, and food is chewed and swallowed again. The food is swallowed again and moves through the rest of the __________ and __________.
rumen
cellulose
regurgitates
stomach
intestines
How does the diaphragm work to help move air into and out of the lungs?
its pulls the bottom of the chest cavity downward, which pulls air into the lungs. When the chest muscles lower the ribcage and the diaphragm relaxes, air is pushed out of the lung.
Mammals have a ______ chambered heart that pumps blood into two separate circuits around the body.
four
The _______ circuit pumps blood from hearts-lungs-heart.
pulmonary
The ________ circuit pumps blood from heart-body-heart.
systemic
Where does the right side of the heart pump oxygen poor blood?
lungs
After blood picks up oxygen in the lungs, where does it go?
to the left side
How do mammalian kidneys help to maintain homeostasis?
by filtering urea from the blood, as well as excreting or retaining water.
What part of the brain regulates involuntary body functions?
medulla oblongata
What part of the brain is part of the cerebrum that is the center of thinking and other complex behaviors?
cerebral cortex
What part of the brain is involved in thinking and learning?
cerebrum
What part of the brain controls muscular coordination?
cerebellum
What are endocrine glands?
regulators of body activities; they release chemicals called hormones that maintain balance
What body system helps to protect mammals from disease?
immune system
TRUE/FALSE: Mammals have a rigid backbone, as well as rigid shoulder and pelvic girdles for extra stability.
false
Mammals reproduce by _____________ fertilization.
internal
TRUE/FALSE: All mammals are viviparous, or live-bearing.
false
What do young mammals learn from their parents?
the behavior needed for survival
List the three groups of mammals.
monotremes
marsupials
placental
What are the characteristics of monotremes?
lays eggs and incubates outside
What are the only two living monotremes today?
echidna
platypus
What are the characteristics of marsupials?
a marsupium pouch
born very early
What are the characteristics of placentals?
placenta which means they have umbilical cord that reaches to mom and baby by diffusion
The three groups of mammals differ greatly in their means of _______ and development.
reproduction
The mammals that lay eggs are __________. Those that bear live young at a very early stage of development are ________.
monotremes
marsupials
What two characteristics do monotremes share with reptiles?
a. the digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems all open into a cloaca
b. they lay soft shelled eggs that are incubated outside the body
How do monotremes differ from reptiles?
young monotremes are nourished by their mother's milk, they have hair, are endothermic, and have a four chambered heart
Name two marsupials.
koala
kangaroo
Describe how marsupial embryos develop.
they are born underdeveloped so they continue to develop inside a pouch
What is the placenta?
an internal structure formed when the embryo's tissues join with tissues from within the mother
What four substances are exchanged between the embryo and the mother through the placenta?
nutrients
oxygen
carbon dioxide
wastes
TRUE/FALSE: After birth, most placental mammals care for their young and provide them with nourishment by nursing.
true
Insect eaters with long, narrow snouts and sharp claws are __________.
insectivores
Herbivores that live in rivers, bays, and warm coastal waters are _________________.
sirenians
The only mammals capable of true flight are ___________.
chiropterans
Hoofed mammals with an even number of digits on each foot are called ________________.
artidoactyls
Mammals that have trunks are ____________.
proboscideans
Herbivores with two pairs of incisors in the upper jaw and hind legs adapted for leaping are called ___________.
lagomorphs
TRUE/FALSE: During the Paleozoic Era, the continents were one large landmass.
true
What effect on the evolution of mammals was caused when the continents drifted apart?
similar ecological opportunities on different continents have produced some striking examples of convergent evolution
What characteristic distinguished the first primates from other mammals?
an increased ability to use their eyes and front limbs together
Who invented the lineage system?
Carlos Linneas
List four adaptations that are shared by primates.
1. binocular vision- 3D images and depth perception
2. a well-developed cerebrum- most well defined of all vertebrates
3. relatively long fingers and toes-allows us to grab
4. arms that can rotate- rotating shoulder blades
TRUE/FALSE: Many primates can hold objects firmly in their hands.
true
A well developed ________ allows primates to display elaborate social behaviors.
cerebrum
Tree dwelling ancestors are known as __________.
arborials
What is binocular vision?
the ability to merge visual images from both eyes
_________ are small in size and nocturnal.
prosimians
_______ monkeys are found today in Central and South America, include squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys, and have long prehensile tails and long, flexible arms.
New World Monkeys
______ monkeys are found today in Africa and Asia, include baboons and macaques, and lack prehensile tails.
Old World
Lemurs and bush babies are examples of _____________.
prosimians
Anthropoids include apes, monkeys, and __________.
hominids
The anthropoid group that includes Old World monkeys also includes the great apes, or ___________.
hominoids
What was the importance of bipedal locomotion that evolved in the hominid family or advantages? What were some disadvantages?
1. ADV:it freed both hands to use tools and as the eyes went higher up; they were able to see farther
2. DIS:the tilted pelvis made birth difficult; they were not as low to the ground so they had a worse sense of smell and sight; they lost stability, agility, and speed; their bones and muscles became stretched/strained
The hominid hand evolved a(n) ____________ thumb that enabled grasping objects and using tools.
opposable
___________ usually have a much larger brain than the other hominoids, such as chimpanzees.
hominids
TRUE/FALSE: Only one fossil species exists that links humans with their nonhuman ancestors.
false
The hominid genus ______________ includes bipedal apes that are fruit eaters.
Australopithecus
Fossils show that hominids walked bipedally long before they had ____________.
large brains
Based on their teeth, what kind of diet did the known Paranthropus species probably eat?
coarse and fibrous plant food
TRUE/FALSE: Currently, researchers completely understand the evolution of the hominid species.
false
Homo habilis was found with tools made of ______________.
stone and bone
Describe the two hypothesis that explain how modern Homo sapiens might have evolved from earlier members of the genus Homo.
1. multi regional
2. out of Africa
The Neanderthals had _______ tools, lived in _______ groups, and made _______ paintings.
stone
social
cave
Neanderthals and ___________ lived side by side for around 50,000 years.
Homo sapiens
What fundamental changes did some populations of H sapiens make to their way of life around 50,000-40,000 years ago?
used new technologies
What are the four characteristics of chordates.
1. notochord
2. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
3. post-anal tail
4. pharyngeal pouches
How does the four characteristics of chordates apply to vertebrates?
1. backbone
2. spinal cord
3. tailbone
4. throat and ears
Studies of embryos of living organisms suggested that most ancient chordates were closely related to __________.
echinoderms
What animals have an exoskeleton? endoskeleton?
roaches, crabs, shrimp, etc.
starfish, sandollars, humans, etc.
Why do scientists consider Pikia to be an early chordate and not a worm?
because of the four characteristics of chordates
What do the following terms mean:
1. dorsal
2. ventral
3. anterior
4. posterior
1. back
2. belly
3. head
4. opp of head
A flexible, supporting structure found only in chordates is a(n) _______________.
notochord
Scientists study _______ larvae to better understand the early evolution of chordates.
tunicate
_________ share a common ancestor with tunicates and lancelets.
vertebrates
Endothermy evolved after the ______________ egg.
amniotic
What is the evolution of vertebrates?
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
What two things do scientists use to study the evolutionary trends in vertebrates?
adaptive radiations
convergent evolution
What effect has the appearance of new adaptations had on the evolution of vertebrates?
very different species have evolved through adaptive radiations
What is convergent evolution?
species that are similar in appearance and behavior because they have adapted to similar environments, even though they aren't closely related
When does convergent evolution occur?
when similar ecological conditions take place
What is one example of convergent evolution?
birds and bats
TRUE/FALSE: The chordate species alive today are a small fraction of the total number of chordate species that have existed over time.
true
List the six chordate groups.
mammals
fishes
amphibians
reptiles
birds
nonvertebrate chordates
What is the homeostatic temperature of humans?
98.6
If muscles are too cold, they may ____________.
contract slowly
The control of body temperature is important for maintaining __________.
homeostasis
List three features that vertebrates need in order to control their body temperature.
1. a source of heat for the body
2. a way to conserve that heat
3. a method for eliminating excess heat
How do endotherms conserve heat? eliminate heat?
fur, fat, and feathers
panting and sweating
_________ are animals whose body temp is controlled within, have a high metabolic rate, have feathers, fat, or fur, and pant or sweat to cool off.
endotherms
___________ are animals such as reptiles, fishes, and amphibians, that warm up by basking in the sun, whose body temp is mainly determined by the temp of the environment, easily lose heat, and have a low metabolic rate.
ectotherms
Who has the highest metabolic rate?
birds
Name one advantage and disadvantage to endothermy.
adv: move around easily in cold
dis: requires a lot of energy
TRUE/FALSE: Ectothermy is a more energy-efficient way to live in cold environments.
false
The first land vertebrates were ________.
ectotherms
Some biologists hypothesis that dinosaurs were ____________.
endotherms
Evidence suggests that endothermy evolved __________.
more than once
Most tunicates and lancelets are ___________. They remove plankton from the water that passes through their ____________.
filter feeders
pharynx
Name two filter feeders from this group:
tunicates flamingos
manta rays crocodiles
flamingos
manta rays
What adaptations do vertebrates have to feed on nectar?
long bills, narrow snouts, long tongues
What type of vertebrates typically have short digestive tracts?
carnivores
ectotherms
List three examples of respiratory adaptations or structures used by chordates in addition to gills and lungs.
1. airsacks
2. skin
3. cloaca
Describe the basic process of breathing among land vertebrates.
Inhaling brings oxygen rich air to the lungs. It diffuses into the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide diffuses into the air in the lungs. Oxygen poor air is then exhaled.
_______ typically have more surface area in their lungs than amphibians.
mammals
Bubble like structures in the lungs that provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange are called __________.
alveoli
Water flows through the fish's _______, where muscles pump the water across the ___________.
mouth
gills
As water passes over gill filaments, ________ molecules diffuse into blood in the capillaries. At the same time, ________ diffuses from blood into water.
oxygen
carbon dioxide
Water and carbon dioxide are pumped out through the ____________.
operculum
Why do mammals need large amounts of oxygen?
it is required by their endothermic metabolism
Why are the lungs of birds most efficient?
it only flows in one direction
Chordates that use gills for respiration have _________-loop circulatory system.
single
Identify where the blood is carried in each loop of a double-loop circulatory system.
1st- between the heart and lungs, pulmonary
2nd- between the heart and body, systemic
What is the pathway between the heart and the lungs called? Between the heart and body?
pulmonary
systemic
In a double-loop system, ________ blood is carried to the body from the heart.
oxygen poor
In vertbrates with gills, the heart consists of _______ chambers.
2
What is the advantage of the reptilian heart to the amphibian heart?
the three chambered reptilian heart has a partition that causes even less mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood.
Why is a four-chambered heart sometimes described as a double pump?
because one moves blood through the lung loop and one through the body loop
In nonvertebrate chordates and fishes, ________ play an important role in excretion. However, most vertebrates rely on __________.
gills
kidneys
_______ release wastes as urea.
mammals
How do vertbrate kidneys help maintain homeostasis? (4)
1. regulating water, salt, and other substances
2. make sure you have what you need
3. maintain blood volume
4. get rid of waste
The PNS is the _________ nervous system. What is the CNS?
periphial
central
What two main parts make up the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
What part of the brain controls the functions of many internal organs?
medulla oblongata
What two parts of the brain are most developed in mammals and birds?
cerebrum
cerebrellum
Although nonvertebrates chordates lack bones, they do have __________.
muscles
What structures provide support and control movement?
skeletal and muscular system
Which kind of development causes eggs to develop internally and receive nutrients from the yolk surrounding it?
oviviparous
What are the three main parts of the circulatory system?
blood
heart
blood vessels