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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a double helix structure that is building block for all life.

Who founded DNA?

Watson and Crick, but actually Rosalind Franklin.

What is DNA made up of?


What are nucleotides made up of?

Phosphate, sugar, and base. Sugar is deoxyribose.

How many nucleotides are in a turn of DNA?


What complementary bases go together?


What are the purines?

A & G

What are the pyrimidines?

C & T

Do purines and pyrimidines bond together?

Yes, and the nucleotides bonded together make a double helix.

What is replication?

The process of making another DNA molecule exactly like the first.

What part of the cell cycle does replication take place in and where?

The "S" phase and the nucleus.

What does enzymes do?

Split the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides apart.

What is the hydrogen bond breaking enzyme called?


What is it called when the enzymes stop the splitting on the stand?

Replication fork.

Where are the nucleotides?

In the nucleoplasm of the nucleus.

What do the base pairs do after?

They will be paired up with both the original strands.

What kind of bond is the sugar x phosphate bond?


After replication what does each DNA have?

Each new DNA has one "old" and one "new" strand. The original strand acts as a template for the code.

Can replication take place at more then one place at a time?

Yes, up to 7000 times.

What happens if there is a mistake in the code?

It can cause a mutation if it isn't fixed. (1 in a billion.)

What are some characteristics of DNA?

Codes for genes, there are two strands, deoxyribose, ATCG, replication, only in the nucleus, and holds codes for our genes.

What are some characteristics of RNA?

There are three types(messenger, ribosomal, and transfer), there is one strand, ribose, ACGU, transcription, can travel out of nucleus, and gives codes to ribosomes to make proteins.

What is RNA?

Ribonucleic acid.

What is uracil in RNA?

It replaces the thymine that is in DNA. RNA has AUGC instead of ATCG.

What are the three forms of RNA?

mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.

What does messenger RNA do?

Transmits info from DNA for use during the making of proteins outside of the nucleus at the site of the ribosomes. Pattern for assembly of our proteins.

What is transfer RNA and what does it do?

A single strand of 80 or more nucleotides folded in a hairpin shape and it binds to specific amino acids.

What is ribosomal RNA and what does it do?

It is present in the ribosome and it makes up part of the ribosome where proteins are made.

What are the steps of protein production?

1. mRNA attaches to a ribosome.

2. Ribosome starts reading the bases.

3. When it reads "AUG" it will start bringing in tRNA (AA.)

4. AA connects to form a protein.

5. Ribosomes stop reading at UGA, UAG, UUA.

What is protein production?

It is made up of specific sequence of amino acids, there are 20.

What are proteins made of?

Consists of hundreds or thousands of amino acids arranged in specific order.

What is the genetic code?

Contains information needed by cells for proper functioning, DNA ultimately stores this information in its base codes which are then given to mRNA.

What is a codon?

A specific group of (3) bases of mRNA, each codon codes for a specific amino acid using tRNA.

What is the start signal?

It tells the ribosome to start reading mRNA molecule & start making the protein.

What is AUG?

The start signal (methionine) & all proteins start with the amino acid methionine.

What is the stop signal?

Causes the ribosomes to stop reading the mRNA or stop the protein. UAA, UAG, UGA.

What is translation?

The process of assembling protein molecules from information coded in mRNA.

Where are tRNA's located?

Floating around the cytosol attached to specific amino acids.

What are ribosomes?

They are composed of mRNA and other proteins that are located in the cytosol and on the rough ER.