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115 Cards in this Set

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Aerobic Respiration
The breakdown of glucose using oxygen from the air to release energy, carbon dioxide and water
Allele
One form of a gene
Allergic Reaction
A reaction, such as a skin rash, by the body to a substance
Amino Acid
The building block of proteins
Amylase
Enzyme that catalyses the digestion of starch
Asexual Reproduction
Producing offspring withput fertilisation, by mitosis
Base (genetics)
A molecule in DNA that is part of the genetic code
Biomass
The total weight of living material that exists at a certain level in a food chain
Bone Marrow
The soft tissue inside the long bones of the body where some stem cells are found
By-product
Product formed in the process of making something else
Carbohydrase
Enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch syrup to sugar syrup
Carbon Cycle
The way in which carbon atoms circulate from one organism to another in the environment
Carrier
Someone who has one recessive allele for a genetic disorder, so they do not have the disease but can pass it on to their children
Catalyst
Something that speeds up a reaction, but it is not itself used up
Cell Membrane
The thin outer layer of a cell that controls what goes into and comes out of the cell
Cell Sap
A liquid that contains dissolved sugars and salts and is found in plant cell vacuoles
Cell Wall
Outer covering layer of a plant cell that provides support for a plant cell
Characteristic
A feature. What a gene codes for
Chlorphyll
Green pigment found in chloroplasts. It is used to trap light for photosynthesis
Chloroplasts
Organelles in a plant cell that contain chlophyll
Chromosome
Long length of DNA. Found in the nucleus of cells
Clone
Offspring identical to the parent
Community
All the living organisms present in a eco-system
Concentration
Measure of how much solute is dissolved in a solvent such as water
Concentration Gradient
The graduated difference in concentration between two different concentrations of a substance in two places
Constrict
Get narrower
Core Body Temperature
Temperature deep inside the body
Cross (genetics)
Mating one individual with another
Cystic Fibrosis
Genetic disease caused by a recessive allele. It makes mucus thick and sticky which causes many problems in the body
Cytoplasm
The contents of a cell outside its nucleus, where the chemical reactions takes place
Decomposers
Organisms that decompose materials
Deficiency Symptoms
Changes in appearance caused by the lack of a particular mineral ion
Dehydration
Containing too little water
Detergent
Chemical that helps breakdown stains
Detrtius
Fragments of partly broken down plant or animal tissue
Detritus Feeder
Organism that feeds on detritus
Diabetes
Disorder where the body cannot control the blood glucose concentration properly
Differentiated (cell)
A cell that has become a particular type, such as a muscle cell
Diffusion
The movement of particles through another substance from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
Digest
Breakdown into smaller molecules, such as in the gut
Dilate
Get wider
DNA
Deoxyribose nucleic acid. Chemical that makes up genes and chromosomes
DNA Fingerprinting
Making an image of part of the DNA code
Dominant
An allele which produces the characteristic when only one allele is present
Efficient (ecology)
Reducing the amount of energy lost from the food chain
Embryo
The early stages of development after an egg is fertilised
Embryo Screening
Checking embryos to see if they have genetic diseases or other characteristics
Energy Store
A deposit of starch in plants or fat in animals
Enzymes
Chemicals that control the rate of reaction in cells
Excrete
Remove from the body
Factory Farming
A system of large scale, industrialised and intensive agriculture. Animals raised are kept indoors and allowed little movement
Fatty Acid
One of the sub units that, with glycerol, makes up fats and oils
Feedback Control
Where the result of a process or reaction is monitored and used to control the rate of the process or reaction
Fertilisers
Chemicals that contain the ions that plants need so that they can grow properly
Food Chain
A pathway that energy and nutrients follow in a community
Fructose
What glucose is changed to by an isomerase enzyme
Fuse (biology)
Join together
Gamete
A sex cell
Gene
A short piece of chromosome that codes for a characteristic or protein
Genetic Code
The sequence of bases on a DNA molecule
Genetic Diagram
A diagram to show the inheritance of alleles and characteristics
Gland
A group of cells responsible for the production and release of a particular substance
Glycerol
One of the sub units that, with fatty acids, makes up fats and oils
Homeostasis
Keeping everything in balance in the body
Hormone
Proteins that tell some cells what to do
Huntington's Disease
Genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele. A disease that affetcs the nervous system later in life
Insoluble
Substance that does not dissolve in a liquid such as water
Insulin
Hormone that controls blood glucose concentration
Isomerase
Enzyme that catalyses the change of glucose to fructose
Limited
The point behind which a reaction does not increase
Limiting Factor
An environmental variable that slows or limits the rate of a reaction
Lipase
Enzyme that catalyses the digestion of lipid
Lipid
Another name for fat or oil
Meiosis
Division of cells to make gametes. The cells produced have only one set of chromosomes
Micro-organism
Organism which is too small to be seen without a microscope
Mineral Ions
Charged particles that plants absorb from the soil for healthy growth
Mitochondria
Organelles that provide energy for a cell during respiration
Mitosis
Division of a body cell that produces two identical cells
Monitor
Keep checking
Mutation
A change in a gene
Net Movement
The overall amount and direction of movement of particles during diffusion
Nucleus (biology)
Large organelle that controls the activities of a cell
Organelles
Structures found within a cell, with a particular function
Organs
Have a characteristic shape, a specific function and are made up from different types of tissue
Osmosis
Net movement of water molecules from a dilute to a more concentrated solution across a partially permeable membrane
Ovaries
The female reproductive organs in humans and animals
Overhydration
Absorbing too much water
Palisade Cella
Cells in the leaf involved in photosynthesis
Paralysis
Unable to move
Partially Permeable Membrane
Thin layer with tiny holes in it that allows some particles to pass through
Photosynthesis
Process by which green plant cells produce glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water using light energy
Protease
Enzyme that catalyses the digestion of a protein
Pyramid of Biomass
Diagram that shows the amount of biomass at each level in a food chain
Rate of Photosynthesis
The amount of photosynthesis occuring in unit time
Recessive
An allele which produces the characteristic when two of the alleles are present
Respiration
The breakdown of sugar in cells to release energy, carbon dioxide and water
Ribosomes
Tiny organelles where protein synthesis occurs inside a cell
Root Hair Cells
Cells that have root hairs on them
Scavenger
Animal that feeds on dead plants and animals
Sex Chromosomes
Chromosomes that determines whether the individual is male or female
Sexual Reproduction
Offspring produced by the fusion of a male and female gamete
Soluble
Substance that dissolves in a liquid such as water
Specialised Cells
The cells that have special features that are related to what they do. Also called differentiated cells
Stem Cell
Cell that can differentiate into many different types
Testes
The male reproductive organs in humans orother animals
Thermogram
Diagram showing temperature
Thermoregulatory Centre
Part of the body which monitors and controls internal body temperature
Tissue
A mass of similar cells
Toxic
Poisonous
Urea
Substance made in the liver from the breakdown of amino acids
Vacuole
Space in the middle of a plant cell where cell sap is found
Variation
Difference between individuals
Waste Product
A product of a reaction that isn't used for anything else
Xylem Vessels
Dead cells that transport water and mineral ions in plants
Yield (biology)
Amount of a crop that a plant produces