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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

B1- Chromosomes

Long molecules of DNA coiled into a double helix shape, always in pairs

B1- Genes

Codes for certain proteins

B1- Genotype

All of the genes an organism has

B1- Phenotype

The characteristics an organism displays

B1- Alleles

Different versions of the same gene

B1- Homozygous

Having 2 alleles the same for a certain gene

B1- Heterozygous

Having 2 different alleles for a certain gene

B1- Dominant alleles

If you have two dominant alleles for a gene or one dominant and a recessive, the characteristic caused by the dominant allele will be shown

B1- Recessive alleles

To show the characteristic caused by a recessive allele, both alleles have to be recessive

B1- Cystic Fibrosis

Genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele, symptoms are sticky mucus in air passages, chest infections, and breathing difficulty

B1- Huntington's Disease

Genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele, symptoms are shaking, memory loss and poor concentration

B1- False positive

Healthy patient being told they have a genetic disorder

B1- False negative

Patient with genetic disorder being told they don't have a genetic disorder

B1- Clone

Genetically identical organisms

B1- Asexual Reproduction

When there is only one parent and the offspring are genetically identical to each other and the parent

B1- Stem cell

Unspecialised cells that can develop into any kind of cell depending on the instructions they're given

B1- Embryonic stem cells

Unspecialised cells found in early embryos, can specialise into ANY kind of cell

B1- Adult stem cells

Unspecialised cells found in adult animals, can only specialise into certain cell types

B2- Symptom

The effects an infection has on the body

B2- Antigens

Protein molecules on the surface of a microorganism's cell

B2- Antibodies

Proteins produced by WBCs that are specific to a particular antigen and therefore specific to a microorganism

B2- Memory Cells

WBCs that remain in the blood after an infection has been fought off and can reproduce quickly if the same microorganism were to enter the blood again

B2- Epidemic

Large outbreak of disease

B2- Herd immunity

If most people are vaccinated against a disease, people who aren't vaccinated are unlikely to catch it

B2- Antimicrobials

Chemicals that inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them without damaging body cells

B2- Placebos

Fake treatments that don't have any effect on the patient

B2- Blind trials

Where patients don't know if they've been given the drug or a placebo

B2- Double blind trials

Neither the patients or the research scientists know which patients get the real drug and which get the placebo

B2- Open-label trials

Both the patients and the scientists are aware of the treatment being used

B2- The heart

Pumping organ. Right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and remove CO2, left side pumps oxygenated blood around the body (double pump)

B2- Arteries

Carry blood away from heart to body cells

B2- Veins

Carry blood back to the heart

B2- Capillaries

Tiny branches of arteries, carry blood close to body cells to exchange substances with them

B2- Heart rate

Number of times a minute your heart beats

B2- Pulse rate

Number of times a minute an artery pulsates

B2- Epidemiology

The study of patterns of diseases and the factors that effect them

B2- Homeostasis

Maintaining a constant internal environment by balancing inputs and outputs

B2- Receptors

Detect a change in the environment

B2- Processing centre

Receives information and coordinates a response

B2- Effectors

Produce a response, which counteracts the change


Hormone situated in pituitary gland that controls urine concentration

B3- Species

Group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring

B3- Mutations

Changes in genes that can happen randomly