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22 Cards in this Set

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The process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job ( develops different subcellular structures & turn into different types of cells )

White Blood Cells

Defend against infection :

Change shape ; gobble up unwanted microorganisms (phagocytosis)


Produce antioxidants to fight microorganisms & antioxidants to neutralise toxins


Kill / Prevent growth of bacteria causing problem, without killing body cells

It’s difficult to develop drugs that can kill viruses because...

Viruses reproduce using your body cells


Viral disease

Spread by droplets from infected person sneeze or cough

Red skin rash and fever

Vaccination when young



Sexual contact / Bodily fluids

Flu (during this time antiretroviral drugs — stop replication)

Attacks immune cells

AIDS develop

TMV ( tobacco mosaic virus )


Mosaic pattern on leaves & discolouration

Discolouration means plant cant photosynthesise

Rose black spot

Rose plants

Fungus causes purple black spots leaves

Not possible to photosynthesise so affects plant growth

Spread through environment in water

Fungicides and stripping affected leaves



Mosquitos (vectors) pick up malaria (protist) when feed on infected animal

Infects by insertion into animals blood vessels

Repeating episodes of fever

Stopping mosquito breeding


Bacteria, virus, protists, fungi

Microorganisms cause disease

Communicable diseases

Plants & animals

Bacteria disease

Very small cells

Produce toxins damage cells and tissues


Not cells — smaller

Reproduce rapidly

Live inside cells & replicate — then burst & release new viruses

Cell damage

Protist disease


Single celled

Some are parasites : live on / in other organisms — transferred by vectors

Fungi disease

Some are single celled

Others have body made of hyphae

Hyphae grow & penetrate human skin & plants, cause diseases

Produce spores: can be spread to other animals/plants

(4) things that affect rate of transpiration

• Light intensity : brighter=greater rate & photosynthesis

•temperature : warmer=faster

•air flow : better=faster : of low air flow, water vapour surrounds lead: same conc inside & out of leaf therefore diffusion slower

•humidity : drier=faster : same as air flow

You can estimate rate of transpiration by...

Measuring uptake of water by plant ( assume water uptake by plants directly related to water loss by leaves (transpiration) )

How are guard cells adapted to open and close stomata?

• kidney shape : Open and close stomata in leaf

when lots of water guard cells fill and plump. Stomata open gases exchange: photosynthesis

short of water: guard cells lose water become flaccid

• thin outer walls , thick inner walls

• sensitive to light : close @ night : save water

• more stomata underleaf: cooler & shadier : less water lost

Phloem tubes

Transport food

Elongated living cells

Small pores for cell sap flow

From leaves to rest of plant


Xylem tubes

Dead cells joined end to end

Carry water & mineral ions from roots to stem & leaves

Transpiration stream

Transpiration is...

Loss of water from plant

Caused by evaporation & diffusion it water from plants surface

Cause shortage of water in leaf, so water taken from rest of plant through xylem tubes

Epidermal tissue

Covers whole plant

Palisade mesophyll tissue

Part of leaf where photosynthesis happens