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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the cell theory?

The cell theory is a scientific theory that describes the properties of a cell

What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?


Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles and prokaryotic cells dont

Features of Prokaryotic cells

-1st cell


-primitive


- bacteria

Features of Eukaryotic cells

-Complex


-plants, animals and fungi


- look for a nucleus

Nucleolus

Round granular structure within the nucleus of a cell and composed of protein and RNA

Nucleoplasm

the substance of a cell nucleus


(not forming part of nucleolus)

Nuclear membrane

a double lipid bilayer surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in Eukaryotic cells

Endoplasmic Reticulum

rough- studded with ribosomes and makes lipids


smooth- has no ribosomes and makes proteins


Breaks down harmful substances and packages proteins for Golgi bodies

Ribosomes

Makes proteins


Attached to ER

Mitochondria

breaks down food molecules to provide energy

Golgi bodies/apparatus

makes and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell

Lysosomes

digests food particles, wastes, cell parts and foreign invaders

Chloroplasts

contain chloroplasts


makes food by photosynthesis


found in plant cells

Cell wall

a protective coating for a plant cell

Cell membrane

decides what enters and leaves the cell

Centrioles

a small set of microtubules


found in pairs and move to poles in cell division

Cytoskeleton

provides shape and structure


acts as skeleton and muscle

Microtubules

microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells sometimes aggregating to form complex cells

Vacuoles

Stores water and other materials

why is the cell membrane described as semi-permeable?

it only allows water and certain ions that are selected to pass through it while restricting some others

Mitosis

Cell division which results in the production of two identical daughter cells


for multicellular organisms to grow, develop and repair

Prophase

mitosis begins


spindle fibres form


centrioles appear and begin moving to opposite poles

Metaphase

Chromosomes align at the equatorial plate


they stay in place by centrioles attached to spindle fibres at the centromere of the chromosomes

Anaphase

Centromeres divide


sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles

Telophase

Two nuclei form


centrioles disappear


condensed chromatin expand


nuclear envelope reappears


cell membrane pinches invoids



four stages diagram










p

what characteristics do daughter cells have in common?

they are both identical

Meiosis


how many cells are produced

cell division that divides sex cells


half the number of chromosomes in a body cell


23 chromosomes

Haploid and Diploid cells

Haploid- half the number of chromosomes as a diploid ( a single copy of genetic info) (gamete)


Diploid- a complete set of chromosomes (zygote) (two copies of the genetic info)

Karyotype

the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species

Dominant/Recessive

both parents carry a normal gene and a faulty one


the dominant gene masks the recessive one


dominant traits have a capital letter and the recessive doesn't

Intermediate/Incomplete

"partial dominance"


one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele

Co-dominant


Group A IA IA or IAi


Group B IB IB or IBi


Group AB IAIB


Group o ii

the relationship between two versions of a gene


one version of a gene from each parent


blood grouping



Sex-linked --> haemophilia

genes that are carried by either sex chromosome

Allele

different form of a trait


eg: one horn, two horns

Genotype

the gene made up of a trait expressed as a set f upper case and lower case letters

Phenotype

the physical presentation pf the genetic expression

Homozygous


Homozygous dominant


Homozygous

having the same two alleles for a genetic trait


FF


ff

Heterozygous



having two different alleles for a genetic trait


Ff

True Breed

offspring have the same homozygous trait as the parent

Hybrid

offspring having one allele from each homozygous parent


Carrier

offspring having a recessive trait masked by a dominant trait may express itself in future generations

Mutation

any change to DNA in a gene or chromosome

Genome

total genetic material in an organism

amniocentesis

a technique used to obtain a small sample of fluid from sac around the foetus to test for genetic abnormalities

BASES

adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine


"apples on the tree"


"cars in the garage"

Human Genome Project

advantages - gives you treatment


- diagnosis of disease


-reducing inheritable mutations


-replacement ofdefective gene


disadvantages- expensive


-people may be able to access your private information as it runs through bank, etc.

Interphase

part of the cell where it spends most its time carrying on metabolism

Early Prophase

in meiosis is when crossing over,thickening and condensing happens


in mitosis is when the nuclear membrane disappears and the crossing over occurs

homologous pairs

a pair of chromosomes that contain the same gene sequence each from one parent