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59 Cards in this Set

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glucose vs ribose

glucose: 6 carbon
ribose: 5 carbon

example of monosaccharides

fructose, glucose, galactose

examples of disaccharides

lactose, maltose, sucrose

examples of polysaccharides

starch, cellulose, glycogen

State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen

glucose: energy source, can be broken down to form ATP
lactose: sugar in milk
glycogen: short term energy source


break down to smaller parts


bond together to form larger molecules, used in digestion

role of lipids

energy storage
heat isolation
less dense makes animals float

main component of membrane

Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage

short term
souble in water (easy to transport)
more rapidly ingested

lipids: more energy per gram


Codons are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid


protein synthesis in which the genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

what direction?

5 TO 3

what moves in that direction?

the ribosomes, and they also catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids (via a condensation reaction


A globular protein that increases the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy threshold (i.e. a biological catalyst)

active site

An area on the surface of the enzyme which binds to the substrate


an enzyme's active site matches an specific substrate. for a substrate to bind to an active site it must fit in the three dimensional structure and chemically attract to it


is a structual change in the structure of a protein which makes it lose its biological properties, often forever

cell respiration

the controlled release of chemical energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP

cell respiration in cytoplasm step 1

glycolysis breaks down glucose to pyrovate with small yield of ATP

anaerobic cell resp

also in cytoplasm. pyrovate lactate (or ethanol and carbon dioxied) no yield of ATP

aerobic cell resp.

in the mitocondri, pyrovate can be broken down in carbon dioxied and water with a high yield of ATP

photo synthesis

the convertion of light energy to chemical energy

what is light energy used for

form ATP, split water molecules to produce oxygen and hydrogen

light independent reaction

ATP and hydrogen are used to fix carbon dioxide molecules and make organic compounds

how can photosynthesis be measured

directly through the meaure of oxygen relase or indirect through measuring bio mass

what are eukaryotic chromosomes made of

DNA and protein


an inheritable factor that controll a specific characteristic


a specific type of gene sharing the same locus as other alleles of the same gene and only differing with a few bases


the complete set of genetic information about an organism

gene mutation

a rare change that occurs randomly in the genetic material, eg. change in the sequence of the DNA as nature makes mistakes

Sickle cell anemia

The codon GAG becomes GTG which codes for the amino acid valine instead if glutamic acid. The polypeptide is also modified and the haemoglobin molecule has a different shape and so does the red blood cell

homologous chromosomes

These are two chromosomes that have the same size and structure and are located by the same genes. The genes are not identical (as they come from one parent each) but are different alleles.

what happens in karyotyping and how is it preformed

chromosomes are arranged according to size and structure using chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis


the alleles of an organism


characteristics of an organism

a recessive allele

an allele not present in the phenotype when in a homozygous state

codominant alleles

pairs of alleles that both affectthe phenotype when present in a heterozygote


the particular position on homologouschromosomes of a gene.


having two identical alleles of a gene

test cross

testing a suspected heterozygote bycrossing it with a known homozygous recessive.

some genes have more than two alleles


How does sex chromosomes control gender

Y chromosome contains genes to develop male characteristics, because the X and Y chromosomes are of a different size, they cannot undergo crossing over

sex linkage

Sex linkage refers to when a gene controlling a characteristic is found on a sex chromosome

Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Is used to amplify small amounts of DNA so it can be investigated/tested
Denaturation: DNA is heated to seperate the strands
---> heat tolerant DNA polymerase copies the DNA

gel electrophoresis
fragments of DNA move in an electric field and are separated according to their size and is used in DNA profiling

3 outcomes of mapping the complete human genome

1. can be useful in the search for treatments and new medicines through eg find the gene that controls the production of an desireable molecule
2. improved insight in our orgins, evolution and migratory patterns of humans
3. we know the number, location and bases of all human genes

examples of gmo

Tomatoes (Flavr Savr) have been engineered to have an extended keeping quality by switching off the gene for ripening and thus delaying the natural process of softening of fruit

factor IX(human blood clotting) in sheep milk.

pro's and con's GMO

+ increase levels of production: decrease food shortage and land can be used for preservation instead
+ reduction in the use of pesticides which is good for the enviroment

- unknown consequences on humans and other animals
- other insects than the target one's could be effected
- unatural effect on natural selection also in the wild life


a group of identical organisms or cells derived from a single parent

Arguments for Therapeutic Cloning

+ could cure serious diseases, reduce pain and save lifes
+ cells could be taken from embryos that had stopped developing, or one can argue that embryos have not developed nervous systems.

- not morally right
- the use of stem cells involves a risk of cancer

trophic level

reffers to a position in a food chain.
T1: producer,
T2: primary consumer
T3: secondaryconsumer

homologus structures

those that are similar in shape in different types of organisms despite being used in different ways,
an example is the pentadactyl limb structure in vertebrates, whereby many animals show a common bone composition, despite the limb being used for different forms of locomotion (e.g. whale fin for swimming, bat wing for flying, human hand for manipulating tools,

digestion, enzymes and temperatures

For digestion to increase in these circumstances, body temperature would have to increase as well. However this is not possible as it would interfere with other body functions.This is why enzymes are vital as they speed up this process by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur and they do so at body temperature.

a lipase

pancreatic lipase
triglycerides (oils and fat) --> glycerol, fatty acids



blood consists of

plasma, eurythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets

what is transported by the blood? 7 things

nutrients, heat, oxygen, carbon dioxide, urea, antibodies


organism or virus that causes an disease

antibodies and antigens

Antibodies are proteins that defend the body against pathogens by binding to antigens on the surface of these pathogens and stimulating their destruction. Antigens are foreign substances which stimulate the production of antibodies. Antibodies usually only bind to one specific antigen.