Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)


Describes the equilibrium the cell maintains in response to its environment

Cells are the smallest unit of...

Living things

Simple cells are...


Active transport

Requires the use of energy to move materials across the cell membrane

Passive transport

No energy required due to materials flowing from high concentration to low concentration (diffusion)

Plant cells

Energy conversion is though photosynthesis. Energy from the sun is converted into a sugar called glucose.

Animal cells

Energy conversion is through respiration.

How does mitochondria release energy?

By breaking down molecules like glucose.

All cells go through respiration to make what?


HIV is particularly dangerous because...

It attacks human t-cells as its host

T-cells are critical to what body system?

Immune system

Analogous structures

Body part that is similar in functions as a body part of another organism but is structurally different.


Inherited trait that is selected for over time because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment

Behavioral Isolation

Isolation between populations? Due to differences in courtship or mating behavior

Prophase 1

Tetrads form & crossing over

Reproductive isolation

Occurs when members of different populations can no longer made successfully

Metaphase 1

Homologous chromosomes line up

Anaphase 1

Homologous chromosomes separate

Telophase 1

End up with two cells

Prophase 2

Nothing happens

Metaphase 2

Nothing happens either

Anaphase 2

Sister chromatids separate

Telophase 2

End up with 4 haploid cells


When two organisms fight for the same limited resources

Interspecific competition

When two different species compete for a limited spurce

All plants compete for water & nutrients but all stay in one place

Intraspecific completion

When two of the same species compete for a limited source

Two birds fighting for one worm


The process by which one organism captures and feed upon another organism

Snake eating a mouse


A close ecological relationship between two or more organisms of different species that live indirect contact with one another


An interspecies interaction in which both organisms benefit from one another

A long-nosed bat & a cactus

Tapeworms and humans


A relationship between two organisms in which one received an ecological benefit from another, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed

Demodicids feed on dead cells on your eyelashes


A relationship similar to predation in that one organism benefits while the other is harmed

Wasps lay eggs on a caterpillar, then eats it inside out

How can energy move through an ecosystem?

Producers take in sunlight to food and the energy goes through the consumers

1st trophic level

Contains the most energy. 100% stored

Plants, algae, bacteria

2nd trophic level

90% of energy lost in transfer as hear

Fish, zooplankton

3rd trophic level

Only 1% of original amount stored

Fish, turtles

4th trophic level

Only 0.1% of original amount stored