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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are drupes?
single hard seed enclosed by a hard, stony endocarp= pit
What are berries?
Develops from compound carpel and has > 1 seed
What are pomes?
compound carpel + base of perianth (petals and sepals) endocarp (surrounds seed) is a tough membrane
on Drupes what do we usually eat?
the endosperm
What does dehiscent mean?
they split at maturity, follicles, legumes, siliques and capsules
What does indehiscent mean?
the do NOT split at maturity, achenes, nuts, grains, samaras and schizocarps
What is an achene?
single seed united with pericarp
What are acorns?
true nuts, fused bracts which are modified leaves
What are aggregate fruits?
They are developed from a single flowers (one gynoecium) with several to many carpels
-Individual carpels mature as a clusterd unit on a single receptacle
-individual parts- fruitets- drupes
What are multiple fruits?
They are developed from a single flowers (one gynoecium) with several to many carpels
-Individual carpels mature as a clusterd unit on a single receptacle
-individual parts- fruitets- drupes
E.g pineapple
What is a stony endocarp?
Describe the skin of a true berry.
thin skin and soft pericarp
Describe the skin of pepos?
relatively thick skin
Describe the skin of herpiridium
leathery skin with oil cells
What do coconuts have that help them float?
fibrous mesocarp
What is on the surface of seeds that attracts ants?
What do eliasomes contain?
lipids, sugars, protein vitamins and starch
What is it called when a fruit doesn't contain seeds?
parthenocarpic-development of a fruit w/out fertilization
What are the regions of a fruit?
endocarp (inside), mesocarp and exocarp (outside)
What is a seed?
Mature embryo
stored food (endosperm in angiosperms and megagametophyte in pines)
protective seed coat
What are advantages plants w/ seeds have over plants w/out seeds?
Seed enhances ability to survive in harsh conditions
helps with dispersal movement
What delays the growth of a seed?
when the seed is dispersed and matures
What are the external factors that germination is dependent on?
How much weight consists of water?
What happens after imbibition?
Enzymes present in seed are activated and new ones are synthesized to digest uses stored foods accumulated in the seed’s cells.
Cell enlargement and cell division are initiated. Further growth requires continuous supply of water and nutrients.
As seed imbibes water, it swells and considerable pressuer may develop, which will rupture the seed coat
During early stages of germination, glucose breakdown may be entirely anaerobic, but as soon as seed coat is ruptured
If a seed fails to germinate what is it called?
What are the common causes of dormancy?
immaturity of embryo from low temperatures of winter- enzymatic and biochemical changes take place
impermeability of seat coat
Why do some seeds stay dormant?
to wait for favorable conditions
-some seeds need fires to germinate
What is an artificial way to break dormancy?
What is special about the sacred locus?
found a seed that had been around for 1200 yrs...seed viability
What is an hypocotyl?
stemlike axis below the cotyledons
What is epicotyl?
embryonic shoot, consistingn of a stemlike axis
What does apical meristems do?
actively divide cells to increase plant length,known as primary growth
What is the apex?
tip of the roots
What are the three types of primary meristems?
protoderm, ground meristem and procambium
What are the primary tissues of the primary meristems?
protoderm- dermal tissue (epidermis)
ground meristem- paranchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
procambium- vascular tissue (primary xylem and phloem)
What are apical meristems?
can be at the tip of the root or the tip of the shoot
What are tissues?
groups of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit
What are simple tissues and what are complex tissues?
simple- consists of only 1 kind of cell
complex- 2 to several types of cells
Describe parenchyma cells.
most common type of tissue, soft parts of fruits and veg.
cells tend to store H20 and food, starch, grain, oil tannin
often have spaces between cells
living at maturity
capable of cell division, primary walls impt in regeneration and wound healing
root cutting
What are parenchyma cells called when filled with chloroplasts.
Describe collenchyma cells.
living at maturity, walls generally thick andd more uneven than parenchyma,occur just beneath the epidermis, longer than wide, pliable and strong walls, provide flexible support for growing and mature organs, border veins in eudicots
Describe the sclerenchyma.
cells with thick, tough, secondary walls that are impregnated w/ lignin
-strengthens & support other elements like phloem
- most dead at maturity
- 2 main types- fibers and schlereids
Describe fibers.
long slender, cells that occur in strands or bundles
Describe schlerids.
variable in shape and often branched
Where are sclereids found?
seed coats, shells of nuts, hard endocarp of "stone fruits", pears gritty texture
What are the two complex tissue systems?
xylem and phloem
What are tracheary elements? describe them
vessels and tracheids-elongated cells with secondary cell walls and are dead at maturity, conduct water and minerals
What is the function of parenchyma?
food storage
What does xylem have? describe their structure and arrangement in plants.
vessel elements joined end to end to form long continuous columns and tubes called vessels, have perforation plates in between elements. main type in angiosperms
Describe tracheids that are in xylem.
tapered, over lap, lack perforations, have pair of pits where meet. only type in most seedless vascular plants and gymnosperm, found in angiosperm but not main type
Describe the differences between vessel elements and tracheids.
vessel elements- more efficient conductors of H20 b/c H20 can flow relatively unimpeded from element 2 element but is less safe,
pits of tracheids restrict air bubbles, which in a vessel could obstruct flow of H20 for entire length of vessel.
How does phloem involved in conducting in a plant?
food produced by photosynthesis, amino acids, lipides, micronutrients, hormones, floral stimuli, protein, RNA's (signaling molecules), viruses
What are sieve elements?
principal conducting cells and lack cell wall, complex tissue in phloem,
What type of cells are in angiosperms?
sieve-tube elements w/ companion cells
What type of cells are in gymnosperms?
sieve cell w/ albuminous cells
What type of cells are in phloem?
sieve elements, sieve-tube elements, sclerenchyma, parenchyma
What is the function of fibers and schlerids?
support, sometimes storage
What are only in angiosperms?
sieve-tube elements
Describe sieve-tube elements.
large, more or less cylindrical cells, have narrower, more tapered companion cells, closely associated, laid end to end-sieve tube, no large openings like vessel elements
What are companion cells? describe
parenchyma cells- no nuclei at maturity, have a nucleus and deliver proteins, ATP, etc. to sieve-tube members
Describe sieve cells of phloem.
overlap at their ends rather than forming continuous tubes, have no nuclei at maturitym, have albuminous cells, only in gymnosperms, appear equivalent to companion cells
Describe the dermal tissue system.
epidermis, periderm replaces the epidermis in parts that undergo 2nd increase in thickness
Describe epidermis.
unspecialized cells that lack chloroplasts, compactly arranged for mechanical protection, guard cells that border stomata and have chloroplasts and trichomes
What are the different types of trichomes?
root hairs, leaf hairs in arid areas, leaf hairs on epiphytes, in salty areas, and glandular secretory hairs
Describe the function of root hairs.
facilitate absorption of H20 and minerals from soil,
Where are vascular tissues embedded?
in ground tissue
What are the two types of lateral meristems?
vascular cambium- 2nd xylem, 2nd phloem
cork cambium- periderm (outer bark)
together produce 2ndary tissues
What are lenticels?
opening in periderm, compactly arranged, for gas exchange btwn. air and internal tissue of roots and stems
What type of plants have a taproot system?
seed plants except for monocots
What type of roots develop in monocots?
fibrous root system- stem-borned roots that are lateral roots
What are feeder roots?
fine roots that uptake water and minerals