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238 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alternate forms of a gene
Birds still have gene coding for teeth is what process?
meiotic shift
Genes being "turned on and left on" is what process?
The difference between a benign and malignant tumor is that
a malignant tumor can metastasize
Alternate forms of a gene
Birds still have gene coding for teeth is what process?
meiotic shift
Genes being "turned on and left on" is what process?
The difference between a benign and malignant tumor is that
a malignant tumor can metastasize
During respiration in a eukaryotic cell reactions of glycolysis occur
in the mitochondria
Although still plagued by difficulties, human gene therapy has been used with greatest success to treat which medical issue?
What is the main function of cellular respiration
to convert potential energy stored in glucose into potential energy stored in ATP
Usually enzymes are
individuals heterozygous for a recessive genetic disorder are called
Many parents are having their newborn's umbilical cord frozen because the blood is
rich in stem cells
During the cell cycle, the replication of DNA
occurs between the gap phases of interphase
hypophosphatemia results
all of the daughters but none of their sons will exhibit hypophosphatemia
Which component is not directly involved in the process known as translation?
Which of the following is NOT a function of meiosis in humans
production of eggs
Which of the following equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO(2) + 6 H(2)O --->C6H1206+6 O2
What does the ph in pharm stand for?
potential hydrogen
What is the exception for the 2 chromosome rule?
What do athletes build up?
homologous pairs of chromosomes frequently
contain different alleles
In humans, monosomy involving an autosome is always fatal
going from a single cell to many cells in humans is
cellular differentiation
men are what for any traits carried on the x chromosome
the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy occurs during
Chemotherapuetic drugs...work by
interrupting spindle formation and/or function during mitosis
sequence of cell cycle is
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
wife is type o blood, father is type ab...percentage of child with type o?
25 percent
what occurs during tetrad formation?
crossing over
falure of chromosomes to separate correctly during anaphase is what?
a glucose molecule contains what energy?
potential energy
skin color in humans is an example of
a polygenic trait
What is a mutation that does not result in a change to the amino acid sequence of a protein?
silent mutation
why is it difficult to observe individual chromosomes
the DNA has not yet been replicated
receiving a blood transfusion is best with
o- type blood
each somatic cell in an individual with down syndrome contains what?
47 chromosomes
PCR is used to
amplify small DNS samples to obtain enough for analysis
gene therapy can cause
nucleotide base-pair substitutions are always less damaging than base pair insertions/deletions
asexual reproduction; sexual reproduction
predictable; unpredictable
what only has one chromosome set?
a gamete
how many fertilizations end in miscarriages?
50 percent
The S in SCNT stands for syndrome
enzyme used in pcr was was found; isolated from
in yellowstone hot springs; bacteria
individuals Ss for b-hemoglobin
have 2 different alleles for b-hemoglobin; are carriers of sickle-cell anemia
polio is so debilitating because
it attacks tissues whose cell cycle has been turned off; it has an affinity for tissues of the central nervous system
frequency of recessive allele..
did spiders evolve?
is monosomy involving an autosome always fatal in humans?
what is associated with hypercholesterolemia?
oxygen comes from
terrestrial plants and phytoplankton
This cell does not have a mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rough ER
a bacterium
A DNA molecule is composed of complimentary strands of
This is an element
What is the atomic number?
the protons and electrons too
what is the mass number?
protons + neutrons
what organelle is not surrounded by a membrane?
why do athletes do blood doping?
increase endurance
if an atom has an atomic number of 79 and an atomic mass of 197 how many protons, neutrons and electrons?
79, 118, 79
nitrogen's atomic number is 7, how many electrons?
what is an example of an organic molecule?
what is an ionic bond?
bond with charges
what is a covalent bond?
it shares electrons
what is the process in which cells link monomers together to form polymers?
peptide joining
b-hemoglobin is what type of biomolecule?
in what polysaccharide form do plants store sugar to be available later for energy?
what isotope evidence was used to determine which of the ancient whales could ingest seawater as a source of water?
radon isotopes
an anabolic steroid is a synthetic version of what naturally occurring hormone?
each nucleotide monomer consists of three parts. what are those parts?
a phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base
what are saturated fats saturated with?
What are the major lipids of plasma membranes?
An enzyme destined for secretion from a cell would be manufactured by ribosomes
attached to the ER
if a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would
digest itself
which of the following components of a tossed salad will pass through the human digestive tract with the least digestion?
cellulose in the lettuce
a glucose molecule is to starch as
a protein is to an amino acid
Biological level of analysis just above the individual is the
the population
Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity are accounted for by its
hydrogen bonds
which process depends on the brownian motion to move substances across cell membranes?
Red on black is a friend of jack, but red on yellow can hurt a fellow
batesian mimicry
when 2 solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place the water will
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration
in a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will
the term that comes closest to defining homeostasis is
self regulatory
lactose intolerance demonstrates that the cells lining our small intestines cannot easily
absorb glycogen
ph of pure water
a fatty diet increases chances with cancer in your
to decrease chance of colon cancer you would tell waiter to double the __ and hold the __
lactose; cellulose
What explains why life on earth is diverse, unified, and inter-connected?
individuals Ss for b-hemoglobin are
posessing 2 different alleles; are heterozygous
We went to mars in search of
smokers cough damages what?
what name is given to substances that resist changes in ph?
what shape would a bunch of phospholipids assume if they were thrown into a cup of water?
a long chain connected by hydrogen bonds
when athletes "carbo load" they use __ to make __
starch; glycogen
Why do big food manufacturing corporations frequently hydrogenate the plant oils they put in their processed foods?
the hydrogenated oils have a longer shelf life
whales and hippopotamuses are linked to a common ancestor by evidence from what bone?
the femur
what is implicated in the emergence of supergerms?
antibiotic prescriptions; ingestion of genetically modified foods
Arms race...bark scorpion..grasshopper mice involved evolution through what?
The same type of bones make up what
limbs of humans whales, bats and cats; african desent
Abuse of antibiotics has done what?
hastened evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria; we see this in HIV
What was DDT used for?
Mosquitoes and transmit of malaria; used by WHO in 1960
Charles Darwin did what?
Helped society focus on diversity with Origin of the Species published in 1859
What is basic idea of natural selection?
populations can change over generations; individuals with certain heritable traits can produce more offspring--evolutionary adaptation
What did Origin of the Species state?
that earth was relatively young and was populated by unrelated species that did not change over time (Aristotle belief)
Who started study of fossils in 1700s?
Georges Buffon; earth might be older than 6,000 years
Who suggested evolution by adaptation/ inheritance of acquired characteristics?
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Who was Darwin influenced by?
Writings of Charles Lyell; Darwin said that earth is very old and has been shaped by slow processes over time
What are 2 points Darwin made?
organisms today descended from ancestral species; natural selection was mechanism for descent with modification
What are fossils and where are they found?
preserved remnants or impressions left by organisms that lived in the past; found in sedimentary rocks
What is the fossil record?
chronology of fossil appearances in rock layers; testifies that organisms have appeared in a historical sequence; fits with other evidence of evolution
What are paleontologists?
Scientists that study fossils
What is biogeography?
the study of geographic distribution of a species; suggested to Darwin that we are from ancestors
What is comparative anatomy?
comparison of body structure between different species; evolution is a remodeling process; NS is a tinkerer not an engineer (ears of humans and monkeys)
What is comparative embryology?
comparison of structures that appear during development of different organisms (chick embryo and human embryo)
How can we see evolutionary relationships among species?
Signs in comparison of DNA and genes of different organisms; signs in DNA and proteins
What are Darwin's two observations of natural selection?
1. All species produce in excessive numbers; (struggle for existence) 2. Heritable individual variation
What is an inference of natural selection?
differential reproductive success: those with traits best suited for the local environment leave more offspring
Four facts of NS
1. overproduction 2. limited environment 3. varied population 4. variability is heritable
Examples of NS?
1. pesticide resistance in insects 2. development of antibiotic resistant bacteria 3. drug resistant strains of HIV
Does evolution = NS?
Four causes of evolution?
genetic drift, gene flow, mutations, NS
What is genetic drift?
change in gene pool of a small population due to chance
What is the bottleneck effect?
example of genetic drift; result from drastic reduction in population size
What is the founder effect?
genetic drift into a new colony; explains high frequency of certain inherited disorders among some populations
What is gene flow?
Genetic exchange with another population; tends to reduce genetic differences between populations
What are mutations?
Changes in an organism's DNA; not much effect on a large population; but can have cumulative effects; only NS is generally adaptive
What is darwinian fitness?
contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contributions of other individuals
Does NS always favor the big and aggressive?
false; only works on micro level; cannot explain complex traits
Does NS operate through differential death rates?
false; differential reproductive rates are what matter; longetivity is irrelevant
Does NS have a purpose?
false; it does not anticipate needs of a species; it has to do with mutations and a changing environment
What is directional selection?
Shifts phenotypic curve of a population; selects in favor of some extreme phenotype
What is diversifying selection?
can lead to a balance between two or more contrasting morphs in a population
What is stabilizing selection?
maintains variation for a particular trait within a narrow range
What is ecology?
The study of interaction between organisms and their environments; environment has 2 major components
What are abiotic and biotic?
non-living; living
What is organismal ecology?
concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their environments
What is population ecology?
concerned with populations and groups of individuals of the same species living in the same area; population density and growth
What is community ecology?
concerned with communities, assemblages of populations of different species; focuses on how interactions between species affect community structure and organization
What is ecosystem ecology?
concerned with ecosystems, which include all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area; focuses on energy flow/cycling of chemicals among various abiotic and biotic factors
What is the biosphere?
the global ecosystem
Facts about pesticide DDT
developed in 1950s to improve agricultural production; had harmful side effects (Rachel Carson; Silent Spring; modern environmental movement)
What is a biome?
tropical moist forests; deserts; taiga; tundra
What are three types of adaptations for organisms?
physiological; anatomical; behavioral
three physiological adaptations?
temperature, water, solar radiation
Who can tolerate extremes and who are mildest among vertebrates?
Birds/mammals can tolerate extremes because they are endotherms; reptiles are more limited in toleration because they are ectotherms
What is one anatomical response?
Change of shape of body form or anatomy
What is one contrast in behavioral response?
In contrast to plants, most animals can respond to unfavorable change in an environment by moving to a new location
What are some periodic disturbances we endure?
catastrophic disturbances; can devastate biological communities; hurricanes, floods, fire
What happens after a disturbance?
Area is recolonized by organisms or repopulated by survivors; structure of community undergoes succession of changes during the rebound
What is macroevolution?
encompasses major biological changes evident in the fossil record i.e. multiplication of species; evolution of complex novel traits
how many branches of species are on the planet?
around 100 million
What is non-branching evolution?
one part of speciation; where a population changes and becomes a new species; called anagenesis
What is branching evolution?
another part of speciation; one or more new species branches from a parent species that may continue to exist; referred to as cladogenesis
What does species mean?
it is a latin word that means "kind" or "appearance"
Who discovered and what is the biological species concept?
Ernest Mayr; led expedition into new guinea and found a diversity of birds (n=138); defines species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups (skunks)
What is a key event in the potential origin of a species?
When a population is somehow severed from a parental population; isolating reproductively, the 2 populations
What are 2 modes of speciation?
Allopatric and sympatric speciation
What is allopatric speciation?
Can fragment a population into 2 or more isolated populations
When does speciation occur?
only with the evolution of reproductive barriers between the isolated population and its parent population
What happens when 2 daughter populations come back in contact and barrier goes away?
If interbreeding produces offspring of low fitness there is hybrid inviability and hybrid sterility (donkey--mule(sterile)--horse) (Study ch 14 diargram with speciation)
What is sympatric speciation?
occurs if a genetic change produces a reproductive barrier between mutants and the parent population (ex. domesticated plants)
What is polyploidy?
Mechanism of sympatric speciation discovered by Hugo de Vries
What are polyploids?
Originate from accidents during cell division; can lead to sympatric speciation
What is the "common denominator for BSC and cladogenesis?
Reproductive isolation; important to formation of sister/sibling species; both a cause and a consequence (finches)
What are 2 things that account for evolution of biological novelty? i.e. complex traits?
Cumulative selection, and exaptation/cooption
What is exaptation?
involves a structure that evolves in one context gradually becoming adapted for other functions; mechanism for novel features to evolve gradually; NS is a tinkerer not an engineer
What is an example of exaptation?
Birds that are derived from a lineage of earthbound reptiles; developed from flightless ancestors (teeth, wing claw, feathers)
How did insect flight evolve?
gill plates
Who worked on aquatic stoneflies?
john marden; stoneflies skimming and sailing
What is development and evolutionary novelty?
subtle change in the developmental genes that can have profound effects
What is Paedomorphosis/neoteny?
retention of juvenile boy features in the adult; important in human evolution as well as axolotl's
What is the fossil record?
An archive of macroevolution
Does time affect diversity?
What do scientists believe about dinosaurs and the cretaceous period?
That the cretaceous period ended about 65 million years ago; a meteor impact contributed to the extinction of dinosaurs and mammals were allowed to diversify
What is adaptive radiation?
rapid emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor; associated with colonization of an archipelago,or a plethora of "open niches" created by a mass extinction
Who founded the formal naming system used today?
Carolus Linnaeus; 2 part name with genus and species for each species
What is the goal of classification?
To reflect phylogeny, the evolutionary history of a species
What is convergent evolution?
involves superficially similar structures in unrelated organisms based on NS;
What is molecular systematics?
compares DNA and amino acid sequences between organisms; reveals evolutionary relationships
What are the 5 kingdoms of the 5 kingdom system?
plantae, monera, protista, fungi, and animalia
What are the three domains?
bacteria, eukarya, and archaea
What have ecologists noticed regional patterns in?
terrestrial and aquatic life
How are the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology linked?
evolutionary adaptation through NS results from the interaction of organisms with their environments
What is population density?
The the number of individuals of a species per unit of area or volume
How do we measure population density?
Practically impossible; possibly by indirect indicators such as the # of bird nests for bird count OR the mark and recapture method (marked and recaptured after a period of time)
What is the exponential growth model?
rate of expansion of a population under ideal, unregulated conditions; human population has been growing exponentially for centuries
Explain logistic growth facts
A population may grow exponentially for a while but but eventually one or more environmental factors will limit its growth
What is carrying capacity?
the number of individuals of a given species that can be sustained by the environment on a long-term basis i. e. without environmental degradation
What is the logistic model?
description of intraspecific competition; describes population growth as density-dependent
What are density dependent factors?
population-limiting factors whose effects intensify as the population increases in size; increase a population's birth and death rate (yeast cultures and paramecia; barnacles in the intertidal)
what is a community?
an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interaction(interspecies interactions)
What are some interspecific interactions between species?
(-,-)=interspecific competition; (+,-)= predation, parasitism, herbivory; (+,+)=mutualism
What is interspecific competition?
when 2 or more species rely on similar limiting resources; may limit population growth of competing species; can influence community structure (GF Gause studied this with protists)
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
2 species so similar competing for the same limited resources cannot coexist in the same area
What is the ecological niche?
sum total of a species' use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment; species' ecological role
What are two possible outcomes of competition between organisms with similar niches?
local extinction (extirpation of one species; evolution of one species to use a different set of resources i.e. resource partitioning (galapagos finches)
What can resource partitioning do?
can actually increase species' diversity (different finch beaks)
What is predation?
When organisms eat other organisms; predator is consumer and food as prey; includes herbivory--consumption of plants by animals
What are some predator adaptations?
Blind owl at night, but good hearing; snake has three tongues for sensory purposes
What are some animal defenses against predators?
passive defenses such as hiding; or active defenses such as escaping or defending themselves
What are some distraction displays?
Directing attention of the predator away from a vulnerable prey to another prey that is more likely to escape
What is camouflage or cryptic coloration?
a passive defense that makes a potential prey difficult to spot against its background; some preys have mechanical or chemical defenses against their predators
What is one chemical defense?
called warning coloration or aposematism
What are some plant defenses against herbivores?
rashes, infections
What are experiments of Robert Paine?
removed a dominant predator from a community; provided evidence of the phenomenon of predation
What are keystone predators and what do they do?
help maintain species' diversity by preventing competitive exclusion of weaker competitors; (keystone mutualists, parasites, etc)
What is a keystone species?
any species having a significant influence on the composition of a community;
Explain symbiotic relationships between mutualism and parasitism
interspecific interaction in which one species (symbiont) lives intimately with, in, or on another species, (host)
What is parasitism?
is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed (parasite gets nutrients by living in or on its host organism) (parasites can be plants)
What do some parasites do?
modify the behavior of their host
What is mutualism?
is a symbiosis that benefits both partners (i.e. mycorrhizal on juniper seedings in normal soil)
What has happened to many mutualistic relationships?
They have evolved from predator-prey or host-parasite interactions (i.e. Stanley Temple and story of dodo and tambalcoque tree)
What symbolizes commensalism?
(+, 0) = commensalism
What led to the banning of DDT in 1972?
the disappearance of canaries in the 50s and 60s, linking to the dangerous use of pesticides
What warned us of the dangers of the toxic accumulation of heavy metals and PCBs?
Appearance of gross birth defects in waterfowl in the central valley of CA
what creates new alleles?
What happened to the 24 chromosome?
became part of #2
darwinian fitness depends most on
reproductive success
genetic drift is the result of
NS is most synonymous with
reproductive success
An increase in frequency of melanistic morphs in populations of pepper moth...
directional selection
Axolotl is a good
Analogous traits are product of
convergent evolution
Speciation requires
geographic isolation
species in same
order are closely related
Does air at lower latitudes cool and fall/sink downward?
What is the rain shadow effect?
drier conditions on leeward side of mountain ranges
trees of wet tropical rain forests tend to be
broad-leaf evergreen plants
Which level includes everything?
what is a abiotic factor that might affect population of monarch butterflies?
chipmunks...glogers rule
lighter in color
gene flow prevents what
methink its like a weasel
cummulative selection
what level of ecology is concerned with adaptations of individuals?
Same function, different origin is
pine cones...fire...germination