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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the four layers of the GI tract

1) Mucosa

2) Submucosa

3) Muscularis Externa - smooth muscle

4) Serosa - visceral peritonium

What enzyme is found in saliva and what does it chemically digest

- Salivary amylase

- Chemically digests carbohydrates

What are the glands that make gastric juice

Gastric Glands:

- mucous

- parietal

- chief

- enteroendocrine

What do mucous cells secrete

Thick alkaline HCO -3

What do parietal cells secrete

HCL and Intrisic factor

What do chief cells secrete

Pepsinogen and gastric lipase

What do enteroendocrine cells secrete


What is the significance of the muscous + bicarb layer in the stomach

The mucous layer has thick mucous and lots of bicarbonate that nuetralizes the acid and protects the lining of the stomach from the acid juices

What enzymes are secreted by the small intestine

Enterokinase - actives trypsin in pancrease

What hormones are secreted by the small intestine

Intestinal hormones:

- CCK or cholecystokinin

- Secretin

What is found on top of the villi in the small intestine

- blood vessels and lacteal

- Brush border enzymes:

- Peptidases (proteins)

- disaccharidases (carbs)

- nucleosidases(nucleic acids)

What is the difference between the acinarcells and the duct cells of the pancreas?
Acinarcellssecrete enzymes into duodenum to aid in chemical digestion
Ductcellssecretes bicarbonate (HCO3-)into duodeum toaid in neutralizing acidic chyme
List one enzyme secreted by the pancreasinvolved in protein digestion
▪Trypsinogen - trypsin
List the enzymes secreted by the pancreasinvolved in carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid digestion
Carbohydratebreakdown▪Pancreatic amylase Lipid(fat) breakdown▪Pancreatic lipase
NucelicAcid breakdown▪Pancreatic nucleases
What type of cells make up the liver?
Whatdo those cells produce?
- makes bile
What is the function of bile salts?
emulsify fats (turn large fat dropletsinto smaller fat droplets)
What is the stimulus for bile release?

The release of CCK

What is the name of the macrophages foundin the liver?
Stellate (hepatic) macrophages
What makes up the portal triad?
Arteriole(Hepatic artery branch)
Venule(Hepatic portal vein branch)
Bileduct (transports bile)
Listthe different epithelia found along the GI tract starting from the mouth
Mouth - Stratified squamousepithelium
Pharynx - Stratified squamousepithelium
Esophagus - Stratified squamousepithelium
Stomach - Simple columnar epithelium
SI - Simple columnar epithelium
LI - Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells
Rectum - Simple columnar epithelium
AnalCanal - Stratified squamousepithelim