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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
-Ex: dead virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae mixed with harmelss strain produces virulent strain
what does a virus do to reproduce?
infect and take over the cell's metabolilc machinery
viruses that eat bacteria (aka. phages)
Origins of replication
the replication of a DNA molecule begins at these special sites
replication fork
a y-shaped region where the new strands of DNA are elongating
DNA polymerases
enzyme that catalyzes DNA at a replication fork
Leading strand
The DNA strand made by this mechanism, working along the template towards the fork.
Lagging strand
The DNA synthesized in this direction, working along strand away from fork.
DNA ligase
the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments to create a single DNA strand
In the replication of cellular DNA, the start of a new chain is its:
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer
is an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication fork
mismatch repair
cells use special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
DNA-cutting enzyme
nucleotide excision repair
DNA repair where the enzyme involved in filling the gap are a DNA polymerase and ligase
special nucleotide sequences that don't contain genes
a special enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres
the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
template strand
provides template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
mRNA nase triplets
The double helix was discovered by whom?
James Watson and Francis Crick (1953)
Two chemical components of chromosomes
DNA and protein