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222 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three body shapes of a prokaryotic cell?
spherical, rod-shaped, spiral
Prokaryotes have no what?
nucleuos or organelles
What do all prokaryotic cells have? What do some prokaryotic cells have?
cell wall; flagella or pili
How are prokarytic cells metabolically diverse?
they can be the can photoautotrophic, photoheterotrophic, chemoheterotrophic or chemoautotrophic
How do prokaryotic cells reproduce?
prokaryotic fission
What is the energy source and carbon source of photoautotrophics?
sunlight; carbon dioxide
What is the energy source and carbon soure of chemoautotrophs?
inorganic substances; carbon dioxide
What is the energy source and carbon source of chemoheterotrophs?
organic compounds; organic compounds
What is a photoautotroph?
prokarytic cell that makes its own sugars
What is a chemoautotroph?
a prokaryotic cell thats uses simple inorganic substances
What is a chemoheterotroph?
a prokaryotic cell that gets its nutrition from organic matter
How many chromosomes does a prokarotic cell have?
What is cyanobacteria?
bacteria that is photoautotrophic
Which bacteria is symbitic in legume roots?
nitrogen fixing bacteria
What sort of bacteria affect or health?
pathogenic bacteria
What is the thrid domain?
the distinct group between bacteria and eukaryotes; archeas
What are methagens?
mathane-makers (archea)
What are the halophiles?
salt-lovers (archea)
What are the thermophiles?
heat-lovers (archea)
What is the nucleic acid core?
(DNA or RNA) in regards to viruses
What is tyhe nucleic acid core of a virus surrounded by?
a protein coat
How does a virus reproduce?
by causing the host cell to produce new viral particles
What are bacteriphages?
viruses that infect bacteria cells
What are bacteriophages used for?
genetic engineering research
What are 4 examples of animal/human viruses?
influenza, chickenpox, common cold, HIV
What are the two ways that viruses multiply?
lytic and lysonegenic
what are the 5 steps to the viral lytic passageway?
attachment, penetration, replication and synthesis, assembly, release
What is the lysogenic pathway?
the virus remains inactive whithin the host cell
what is the smallest pathogen?
What is a naked piece of RNA that causes mainly plant diseases?
What are misfolded proteins that can affect normal proteins in the nervous system?
What is an example of a prion?
mad cow disease
What are compounds that kill bacteria?
What is the first antibiotic?
What is made from blue-green mold?
What is the problem with antiviral drugs?
they are always losing their effectiveness
What do eukaryotes have?
nucleous, usual organelles, and chromosomes
How do eukaryotes reproduce?
meiosis or mitosis or both
What is a single-celled heterotroph with a flagella?
flagellated protozoans
what ancient flagellte causes severe diaherra?
what ancient flagellate causes damage to the urinary and reproductive tracts?
trichomonas vaginalis
what ancient flagellete causes african sleeping sickness?
What are free-living, flagellated, photoautotrophic cell common in freshwater known as?
Where are euglenoids most common?
fresh water
what two things do euglenoids have?
chlorphyll and an eyespot
Whwre are shelled amoebas found?
in the water (ocean)
foraminiferans have a shell of what?
calcium carbonate
Radiolarians have a shell of what?
glass (silica)
alveolates have a tiny sac where?
just under the plasma membrane
what is special about the numerous cilia of a ciliated protozoan?
they beat in synchrony
In a ciliated protozoan, what does the mouth connect to?
the food vacuole
In a ciliated protozoan, what do the contractile vacuoles do?
they pump out excess water
What is a paramecium and example of?
a ciliated protozoan
ciliated protozoans two nuclei are known as what?
the micronucluos and the macronucleous
how do ciliated protozoans reproduce?
asexually; but they can exchange genetic information
What is a single photsynthetic cell w/ 2 flagella located in grooves?
what is bioluminescent?
what can cause red tide?
what is a neurotoxin deadly to humans and other organisms?
red tide
what are parsitic protistians that penetrate the cells of host species?
what is caused by plasmodium?
what is ablood disease cauising bouts of chills and fever?
what disease can be treated by drugs and mosquito control?
What single-celled stramenophiles inckudes water molds, dowy mildews and white rusts?
what single-celled stramenophile has no chrophyll and resembles fungi in absorption of nutrients through filaments?
What single celled stramenophiles are sometiumes parsitic on fish and plants?
what single-celled stramenophiles have a two-part perforated shell made of silica?
what single-celled stramenophiles live in slat water, fresh and damp soils?
what single celled stramenophile's shelles have piled up on the ocean floor over millions of years to form deposits of diatomaceous earth?
what single-celles stramenophiles silica shells are valuable as abrasives and filtering materials?
which single celled sstramenophile shave plates of calcium carbonate?
1500 species of brown seaweed fall into waht group?
brown algae
what algae has leaflike blades, stemlike stipe, rootlike holdfast and gas filled bladders?
brown algae
what is used as a thikening agent in foods, cosmetics, and water-based paints?
what algae has the same pigments as plants, cellulose in cell walls, and store carbohydrates as starch?
green algae
which green algaes can be freashwater or marine, sheetlike, filamentous, colonial or seaweed?
chlorophytes are either single celled or live as symbionets with fungi to form what?
desmids and chara make up what group?
the 4000 species of red seaweed belong whithin what algae group?
red agae
what algae live in warm marine waters at great depths?
red algae
some forms of what can ais in reef building?
red algae
what kind of algae produce algar?
red algae
what is a gelling material used in medical research?
what amoboid cell causes amoebic desentery?
what is heretrpohic, free-living anf an amoeba-like protitians?
slime molds
What creep along the ground engufing food particles?
slime molds
what amoboid cell produces spore-bearing fruiting bodies?
slime molds
what gave rise to plants?
the life cycle of the algae is dominated by what phase?
haploid gametophyte phase (only one set of chromosomes)
the life cycle of land plants is dominated by what phase?
diploid sporophyte
cells whithin the sprophyte of a land plant undergo meiosis to give rise to what?
haploid spores
the spore of a land plant develops into what?
a gametophyte
what produces the eggs and spermm of the land plants?
the gametophyte formed by the spore
what two things make up the vascular tissue pof a land plant?
xylem and pholem
what are the stems and leaves of a land plant covered by?
In land plants, evaoporation is controlled by what?
the stomata
spores of algae and simple vascular plants come in how many kinds?
in gymnosperms and flowering plants spores come in how many sizes?
which spore matures into the male gametophyte?
the microspore
which spore produces the female gametophyte and produces seeds?
What is significant about byrophyte?
they have no vascular tissue
mosses, liverowrts, and hornworts are considered what?
what do bryophtes have instead of roots?
what is the most common bryophte?
why arer the seedless vascular plants so low to the ground?
b/c they have swimming sperm
What are aerial leaves called?
what is a cluster of spore cases on the lower side of the frond called?
club mosses, spike mosses, whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns are all what?
seedless vascular plants
what seedless vascular plant has rhizomes and fronds?
vast forests of lycophyte and horsetail trees existed in what type of swamps?
what are plants w/ naked seeds referred to as?
what are cone-bearing woody plants with needlelike or scalelike leaves?
what are palmlike woody plants?
what kind of gynosperms is mainly confined to the tropics and and bears cone-shaped strobili that produce either pollen or seeds
what gymnosperm has deciduous fan-shaped leaves and is resistanat to insects disease and air pollution
gnetophystes are gymnosperms that produce what weight loss supplement?
Male cones produce what?
female cones produce what?
conifers are wind pollinated and how long does it take for fertilization?
up to a year
what is special about the seeds of a female cone?
they are winged
what are angiosperms known as?
flowering planst
vascular seed plants are the plants that make what?
magnoliids, eudicots and monocots are the three major groups of what?
angiosperms such as mangnolias, avocados, nutmeg and black pepper are known as what?
angiosperms such as grasses lilies and cereal grains are known as what?
Seeds form where?
in the ovary
in angiosperms where does the seed mature?
whithin fruit
most fungi ar considered saprobes, which mean what?
they get their nutrition from nonliving matter
All what rely on extracellular enzymatic digestion and absorption
what ways do fungi reproduce?
sexually and asexually
what kind of reproduction involves the formation of gametes as well as spores?
sexual reproduction
what sort of reproduction involves mostly non-sexual spores produced in sprangia?
aseaxual reproduction
spore germinate into tubular filaments known as what?
the feeding body of the fungus, known as the mycelium is a mass of what?
the zygote fungi usually reproduces how?
asexually by dust-like airborne spores (but can produce sexually)
the zygote fungi known as rhizopus is nuisance why?
it produces bread mold
ascomycetes are also known as?
sac fungi
what fungi is known for forming sexual sproes inside sac-shaped cells?
sac fungi
the sac fungi yeast reproduces asexually by doing what?
truffles are what kind of fungi?
penicillium and asperigillus are both forms of what?
sac fungi
basidiomyctes are known as what?
club fungi
what kind of fungi includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, coral fungi,puffballs, and stinkorns
club fungi
some club fungi are symbionets that live in close relation to what?
tree roots
what is produced n club-shaped gills under the mushroom cap?
spores of a mushroom germinate to produce underground what?
how do club fungi reproduce?
what deoes it mean to live closely together?
what is it called when an interation involves both partners benefiting?
in the mutialistic relationship between fungi and green algae, how are both benefiting?
the fungus provides houseing and the algae provides food
crust-like, leaf-like and shrub-like are the three body forms of what?
what are lichens very sensitive to?
air pollution
what can live on bare rocks and tree trunks?
mycorrhizae is the symbiotic relationship in which fungi hyphae surround what?
the roots of shrubs and trees
mycorrihizae is a symbitix relationship between the fungus and the roots of a tree, how is it beneficial?
fungus provides extra SA for absorption and the tree roots feed the fungi
histoplasmosis, a fungus, causes what?
a respiratory disease
the fungal disease that forms on rye produces a toxic alkaloid known as what?
what is a multicelled hetertroph that injests its food?
an animal
what thing is chracterized by reproducing either sexually or asexually and is mobile for most of its life cycle?
an animal
in animals the cells stick together and interact in units known as what?
what does cephalization mean?
having a definite head end
what are the 2 different kinds of guts?
saclike and complete
what does a saclike gut include?
only one opening
what does a complete gut include?
2 openings (a mouth and an anus)
when an animal is composed of repeating body unit it is known as what?
what do they believe animals evolved from?
colonies of flagellated cells
sponges have two layers of body cells with what in between?
a semi-fluid matrix
collar celle line the interior of what kind of animal?
what type of animal uses skeltal spicules to deter predators
what animal is hermaphroditic or asexual or both and its zygote develop into free-swimming larva
what animal can produce buds or fragment?
tentacled, radially symmetrical, and mainly marine are all chracteristics of what animall group?
jellyfish, sea anomnoes, hydrozoans, and coral are in what animal group?
what are the 2 body plans of the cnidarians?
polyp or medusa
what is the jellyfish stage called?
the meedusa stage
what is the tubelike stage attac=hed to the bottom known as?
the polyp stage
how is th digestive cavity of a cnidarian?
what is the unique weapon all cnidarians have?
spiny nematocysts
what does the medusa stage produce?
eggs and sperm
planarians are common where?
in ponds and streams
What animal has a saclike gut, a single mouth opening, and a phranyx that extends for food gathering?
what animal is hermaphroditic and reproduces by trading sperm or asexually by transverse fission of the body?
what animal is an internal parasite that requires a primary host for sexual reproduction and an intermediate host for development?
what is the primary host for a fluke worm and what is the intermediate host?
human; aquatic snail
what animal is the intestinal parasite of vetebrates?
what animal has no digestive tract and absorbs predigested nutirents from its host?
what animal consists of a scolex for attachment to the gut and a string of hermaphroditic proglottids?
what is so significant about annelids?
segments galore!
bilateral worms with a coelem and a segemtned body inside and out are considreded what?
earthworms, leeches, polychaets are all hermaphroditic and what else?
what annelids is a valuable tiller of soil and has setae to ain in locomotion?
what annelid is either an aquatic predator of invertabrates or a parasite of vetebrates?
what annelid is a wandering or tube dwelling marine worm with parpodia and setae?
what annelid has a complete digestive system and a closed circulatory system?
an earthworm
what annelid has coelomic chambers filled with fluid to provide a hydrostatic skelton?
an earthworm
what annelids outer surface is covered with cuticle?
an earthworm
what animal has a fleshy, soft bilateral body with a small coelom?
a mollusks
what animal could possible have a head with eyes, possibly tentacles and probably a shell or two?
a mollusk
what is the tissue of a mollusk that produces a shell?
what is the file like tongue used to rasp vegtables that most mollusks have?
a mollusks protection of 8 plates is known as what?
when a mollusks has 2 protecting shells and can burrow in sand or mud what is that called?
nudibranchs (sea slugs) secrete what?
whart mollusks are modified for highly active predatory lifestyle and has tantacles and beaklike jaws?
what mollusk moves by jet propulsion and has the ability to squirt ink?
What animal is extrememly advanced w/ a closed circulatory system, a large brain w/ a good nervous system and almost human like eyes?
what invertabrate is bilateral w/ a slender tapered body?
a roundworm
what invertabrate has a complete digestive system, reproducitive organs that lie in a fluid-filled false coelom, and had tough cuticle to protect is body?
what roundworm in parasitic that is caused by eating raw pork?
what parasitic roundworm causes severe swelling of arms and legs?
hat are the 4 major groups of arthropods?
trilobites, chelicerates, crustaceons, and uniramians
what animal group includes adapataitons such as a hardened exoskeleton, jointed appendages, and specilaized segments?
What animal group posses respiratory sturctures (trachea) and specialized senry structures such as antennae and compound eyes?
what animal group has specialized developmental stages such as metamorphosis?
horeshoe crabs, spiders, scorpions, ticks and mites all belong to what group?
what group includes shrimps, lobsters, crawfishes, crabs, branacles, pillbugs and copepods?
which arthropod repeatdly molts and sheds its exoskeleton and is divided into many segments?
which arthropods has 2 pairs of antennae, pair each of mandibles and macillae, and 5 pairs of legs?
the body of what animal is divided into 3 regions (head, thorax, and abdomen)?
which animal has a complete digestive tract and magipighan tubules for liquid metabolic wastes?
what animal can spread rocky mountain disease?
what animal can spreas rift valley fever, malaria and west nile?