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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Two types of cells

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic


Small structures within a cell that often have their own membrane surrounding them and these structures often perform some kind of task for the cell.

Largest organelle

Nucleus. It holds the DNA(contains the instructions for the cell/organism)


Long threadlike structures made of protein fibers that project from the surface of a cell. locomation And feeding. It moves like a whip and allows them to move through their environment.

Pili or pilus

Are short flagella. Helps the prokaryotic cell attach to appropriate substrates and aid in the exchange of genetic information between cells.

Cell theory

States that all living organism at made up of cell which is where the basic processes of life occur.


Simplest and most ancient cell. Do not have organelles with membranes around them. Only organelles are ribosomes which help the cell turn genetic information into proteins.

Similarities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Have DNA, have ribosomes, cytoplasm, plasma membrane

Prokaryotes/eukaryotes differences

Pro: oldest, small and simple. Lack nucleus, and membrane bound organelles, single celled, single circular chromosome Euk: evolved from prokaryotes, larger and more complex , contain nucleus and organelles , either single or multicellular , multiple linear chromosome

Cell wall, prokaryotes

Provide structure/protection for cell

Plasma membrane, prokaryotes

Helps determine what can and cannot enter and exit the cytoplasm of the cell.

Main types of prokaryotes

Bacteria and archaea

Eukaryotic cells

Plants, fungi, people, basically anything alive that is not bacterium or an archaea are made up of eukaryotic cells.

Features of eukaryotic

Flexible membrane made of phospholipids that surrounds them. Plasma membrane decides what can get in or out of the cell.


Holds the organelles


Organelles is where the information turns to protein.

Endoplasmic reticulum and Gigli apparatus

Rough and smooth. These organelles help the cell produce certain macromolecules like lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.


Eukaryotic cells special organelles that help produce energy for the cell or organism animal's have mitochondria but eukaryotic cells have mitochondria and chloroplasts. They are organelles that use elelcrosb from carbohydrates to make energy for the cell. Chloroplasts use energy from the sun to create carbohydrates and energy for the cell.


Make a copy of their DNA, and eitht hag copy they make two separate cells. Once chromosome is copied the cell starts to stretch out and the copies split apart and allow the cell wall to grow. It takes 5 mins if environment is right


First step is called interphase and during this the cell is getting ready to grow and divide. Three parts. G1, s, and G2. During g1 and g2, the cell is growing mad everything ready to make a copy. During the s phase, the DNA is copied. After chromosome is copied prophase begins. Cytoskeleton forms a structure for chromatids. Then metaphase begins and cells pull apart. Anaphase begins when chromatids begin to separate from eachother. Last stage of of mitosis is telophase. During this stage chromatids are covered with a membrane that allows nucleus to form around. Then cytokinesis.

Potential energy

Stored energy. Energy something has when it is not moving it can be used when necessary.

Kinetic energy

Energy used when something is moving.


Term used to describe the laws of energy transfer that exist in the universe. 4 laws

First law of thermodynamics

There's a finite amount of energy in the universe and this energy is neither created nor destroyed during energetic reaction it's only changes form

2nd law of thermodynamics

As time goes on things tend to become more disorganized unless acted on by something that organizes it and this case and energy


Measure of disorder or this organization in the system


Proteins that help chemical reactions take place within cells they work by lowering the activation energy which is the amount of energy needed to get a chemical reaction started

Synthesis reactions

Putting small molecules together to make bigger molecules

Decomposition reaction

Taking big molecules as bringing them into smaller pieces

Repressors and activators

How cells regulate or control their enzymes by using molecules

Cellular respiration

Series of chemical or metabolic reactions that move electrons from one place to another and in the process create ATP


Adenosine triphosphate. This molecule is one of the major molecule cells use for energy


First stage of cellular respiration. During the stage glucose is broken that part into smaller pieces

Citric acid cycle

This stage starts when the pyruvate made during glycolysis enters into a series of chemical reactions that allow nadh and FADH2 to be made as well as some more ATP

Electron transport chain

This is the stage in which most of the ATP are made. Nadh and fadh move over to the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. They really some electrons and hydrogen atoms the electrons are sent through a series of protein or metal complexes of the electron transport chain

Summary of cellular respiration

Ultimately what cellular respiration does it take energy from the food we ate move that energy around and creates ATP.