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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
element
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means
compound
a substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ratio
atom
named form a Greek word meaning "indivisible," is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
proton
a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge
electron
a subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge
neutron
subatomic particle with no charge
nucleus
a atom's central core
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus
mass number
the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
isotopes
elements that have the same number of protons but different amounts of neutrons
radioactive isotope
when the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
chemical bonds
interactions usually result in atoms staying close together
ion
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from a gain or loss of one or more electrons
ionic bond
two ions with opposite charges attract each other; when the attraction holds them together, its called an ionic bond
electronegativity
an atom's attraction for its electrons, including shared electrons
nonpolar
covalent bonds because the electrons are shared equally between the atoms.
polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons
polar molecule
unequal distribution of charges
cohesion
the tendency of molecules to stick together
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
heat
the amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a body of matter
temperature
measures the intensity of heat
solution
a liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances
solvent
the dissolving agent
solute
substance that is dissolved
aqueous solution
when water is the solvent
acid
a compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions
base
a compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solution
pH scale
used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is
buffers
substances that resist changes in pH by accepting H+ and donating H+ when it is depleted
acid precipitation
defined as rain, snow or fog with a pH lower than 5.6 the pH of uncontaminated rain
chemical reaction
a process leading to changes in the composition of matter