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95 Cards in this Set

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What is the series of changes in the state of the cell, tissue, organ, or organism that gives rise to the structure and function of living organisms?
Cell development
Cell development is an organization of phases regulated by ____, ___, and ___.
Cell development is an organization of phases regulated by morphogens, transcription factors, and segmentation genes.
During the process of cell differentiation, some cells use what cell adhesion proteins?
Cadherins
Four sub-processes of cell development?
1. Growth
2. Cell differentiation
3. Pattern formation
4. Morphogenesis
Which development involves the initial cells formed by cleavage containing different determinants and those determinants directing the path of development?
Morphogenesis
What are the signal molecules that determine relative positions during development?
Cytoplasmic determinants
Which of the following is FALSE about cytoplasmic determinants?

a. symmetrically distribute throughout cell
b. give positional information c. promote cellular changes to resident cell
d. act on neighboring cells e. are concentration dependent
f. can cause apoptosis
a. symmetrically distribute throughout cell

Cytoplasmic determinants distribute asymmetrically.
What is the structure (a hollow ball of cells) that forms from the zygote?
Blastula
What is the blastula a result of?
The blastula results from a huge increase in the number of blastomeres (the cells in the zygote).
Blastomers of the animal pole form the endodermal tissues or the ectodermal tissues?

Blastomeres of the vegetal pole form the ectodermal tissues or the endodermal tissues?
Blastomers of the animal pole form the ectodermal tissues.

Blastomeres of the vegetal pole form the endodermal tissues.
What is the set of genes that constitute the program of development?
Genome
Which of the following is FALSE of a model organism's characteristics?

a. small body size
b. large oocytes
c. many offspring
d. long generation time
d. long generation time.

A model organism would have a SHORT generation time.
Place the following life stages of a Drosophilia's development in order:

a. cellular blastoderm formation

b. syncytial blastoderm formation

c. larva hatches

d. metamorphosis

e. germ cell layers form

f. pupa forms

g. body divides into segments
b. syncytial blastoderm formation

a. cellular blastoderm formation

e. germ cell layers form

g. body divides into segments

c. larva hatches

f. pupa forms

d. metamorphosis.
Fish showing A/P and D/V

http://www.coralscience.org/articles/development/bodyaxes.jpg
:P
A fish's head would be the anterior or posterior end?
Anterior end
If a fish were cut down the middle, (eyes to tail), what axis would this be?
Anteroposterior axis
If the fish were cut from eyes to tail, what would the two remaining pieces be called?
Top: Dorsal
Bottom: Ventral
If a fish were cut from the dorsal fin to the belly, what would the two remaining pieces be called?
With the eyes, left lateral side

With the tail, right lateral side
What process must a zygote go through to become a blastomere?

a. Meiosis
b. Mitosis
b. Mitosis
What is a cell capable of expressing all its genes and produce all adult cell types?

Example?
Totipotent cell.

Example: fertilized egg
What are the descendants of the totipotent stem cells of the embryo?
Pluripotent cells
Pluripotent cells can can differentiate into almost any cell except what?
Totipotent stem cells and cells of the placenta
Which cell can produce an entire individual?

a. totipotent cells
b. pluripotent cells
c. both
a. totipotent cells
The process when injured cells swell and then burst releasing contents into extracellular fluid is referred to as:

a. necrosis
b. apoptosis
a. necrosis
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death when cells shrink and shrivel because material is being absorbed by neighboring cells
Which cells have the capacity to divide and daughter cells can differentiate into 1 or more cell types?

a. meristems
b. stem cells
b. stem cells
What are meristems?
Special groups of self-renewing cells in plants used to build themselves outward.
Meristems are used in plants in a process that substitutes for what process that occurs in animal cells?
Cell migration
Seed germination results from a response to changes in what?
Seed germination results from a response to changes in the environment.
What is the elongated structure that links the embryo of a developing plant to its nutrient sources?
Suspensor
What are CAMs?
Cell adhesion molecules (surface receptors)
What do CAMs do?
Position the cell
The colinearity rule describes spatial arrangement of what?
The colinearity rule describes spatial arrangement of homeotic genes along the chromosome.
The order of homeotic genes along chromosomes corresponds to what?
The order of homeotic genes along chromosome corresponds to their expression along the anteroposterior axis of body.
What are the genes that are found in complexes (clusters) and encode transcription factors and activate developmental genes?
Homeotic genes
The finding that homeotic genes are present in both mammals and insects indicates that these genes must have ___.
The finding that homeotic genes are present in both mammals and insects indicates that these genes must have arisen very early in the evolutionary history of animals.
The homeobox is a sequence of ___ nucleotides that codes for __ amino acids
The homeobox is a sequence of 180 nucleotides that codes for 60 amino acids
Which proteins are associated with activating genes that code for the first mRNA transcribed in Drosophila embryos?
Bicoid & nanos proteins
Ch. 19 Quiz #1

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter19/pre-test.html
:D
Ch. 19 Quiz #2

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter19/post-test.html
:D
What is the study of the distribution of alleles in populations and the factors that alter the frequency of alleles and genotypes?
Population genetics
How do populations evolve? (4 ways)
1. Certain individuals survive to reproduce more than others.
2. Mutations can spread
3. Genes enter and leave the gene pool
4. Random Chance changes in gene pool (genetic drift)
Do individuals evolve?
No, only populations do.
The genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations, compared with that of other individuals in the population, is known as ___.
The genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations, compared with that of other individuals in the population, is known as fitness.
____ is all of the alleles at all of the gene loci in all of the individuals in a breeding population.
The gene pool is all of the alleles at all of the gene loci in all of the individuals in a breeding population.
For a population to be in ____, all the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions must be met.
For a population to be in equilibrium, all the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions must be met.
What are the three main goals of population genetics?
1. To explain the origin and maintenance of genetic variation
2. To explain the patterns and organization of genetic variation
3. To understand the mechanisms that cause changes in allele frequencies in populations
How do you calculate the Genotype Frequency of a population?
GENOTYPE / TOTAL # of INDIVIDUALS
How do you calculate the allele frequency of a population?
Total Number of the specific alleles / Total number of all alleles in population.
What are the nine assumptions of the Hardy Weinberg Theorem?
1. Organism is diploid
2. Reproduction is sexual
3. Generations are non-overlapping.
4. Mating is random
5. Population size is large
6. Migration is negligible
7. Mutation can be ignored
8. Natural selection does not affect alleles under consideration
9. The alleles are not on the sex chromosomes
How is the Hardy Weinberg Theorem useful?
It explains how genetic variation is preserved
It provides a benchmark to compare to other populations.

Example: No change in frequencies, evolution is not occurring
What are the two basic equations of the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem?
p + q = 1
p²+2pq+q² = 1
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation p + q = 1, what does p stand for?
p is the variable for the frequency of the dominant allele
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation p + q = 1, what does q stand for?
q is the variable for the frequency of the recessive allele
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation p²+2pq+q² = 1, what does p² stand for?
p² is the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype (AA)
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation p²+2pq+q² = 1, what does 2pq stand for?
2pq is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype (Aa)
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation p²+2pq+q² = 1, what does q² stand for?
q² stands for the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa)
What causes microevolution?
Relaxing the conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.
Name five causes of microevolution.
1. Small population size, genetic drift
2. Immigration/emigration
3. Mutation
4. Nonrandom mating
5. Natural selection
When selection acts to eliminate one extreme from an array of phenotypes while selecting for in the other direction.

a. directional selection
b. disruptive selection
c. stabilizing selection
a. directional selection
When the midrange of an array of phenotypes is favored

a. directional selection
b. disruptive selection
c. stabilizing selection
c. stabilizing selection
results in the population being strongly selected for in two directions (phenotype extremes e.g., very tall and very short)

a. directional selection
b. disruptive selection
c. stabilizing selection
b. disruptive selection
What term is used when individuals migrate from the population taking their alleles, also when new individuals enter the population with new alleles?
Gene flow
This happens in a small population, where alleles could be lost or changed due to chance.
It also causes loss of genetic variability.
Genetic drift
Does random mating affect all alleles?
No, it could affect only a few alleles.
For example, random mating would not affect blood type, or other phenotypes that are not outwardly seen. It would affect others like intelligence, or physical appearance.
What are two effects of migration?
1. Increases variability within a population

2. Prevents a population of that species from diverging to the extent that it becomes a new species.
Which effects happens when a large number of individuals die or are removed from the population, changing drastically the genotype/and or allele frequency which leads to low heterozygosity in the descendant population?
Bottle neck effect
When does the founder effect occur?
A founder effect occurs when a new colony is started by a few members of the original population.
Which effect explains how rare alleles may become more common in a new population?

a. bottle neck effect
b. founder effect
b. founder effect
Which of the following is false about how fitness is determined?

a. by how long it survives
b. how often it mates
c. how many offspring it produces per mating
d. the genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations
e. the above are all true
e. the above are all true
Ch. 20 Quiz #1

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter20/pre-test.html
:P
Ch. 20 Quiz #2

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter20/post-test.html
:P
Yay for helpful videos on Ch. 20!
http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter20/animations_and_videos.html#
What are the four conditions for natural selection?
1. Individuals within species are variable

2. Some of these variations are passed on to offspring

3. In every generation, more offspring are produced than can survive

4. The survival and reproduction of individuals are not random: Individuals who survive and go on to reproduce are those with the most favorable variation
Natural selection leads to ___.
Natural selection leads to adaptation.
Evolution evidence?
1. embryonic development
2. vestigial structures
3. distribution patterns
4. convergence
What is a group of related organisms that share a distinctive form?
Species
An ___ species is one that is naturally found only in a particular location
An endemic species is one that is naturally found only in a particular location
A technique used in dating a rock to predict the age of the fossils
Radioactive isoptope decay, absolute dating
The known half-life is the amount of time it takes for ___.
The known half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the isotope to change into another version of the element, so the older the rock the more radioactive decay or change.
In the case of the toothed whales, the fossil record shows they evolved from a land mammal with ___.
In the case of the toothed whales, the fossil record shows they evolved from a land mammal with hooves.
What is independent evolution of similar forms in different lineages when exposed to the same selective pressures?
Convergent evolution
What are the studies of geographic distribution of species?
Biogeography
Structures that are similar in form due to function determining the necessary form, not because of a common ancestor:

a. homologous
b. analogous
b. analogous
What are homologous anatomical structures?
Seen in related species; are derived from the same body part in a common ancestor and share a common developmental pattern but may have different appearances and functions.
Evolution of different forms in the same lineage when exposed to different selective pressures
Divergent evolution
What are vestigial structures?
Examples?

Are they homologous or analogous?
They have no obvious function, but resemble structures their ancestors possessed.

Examples: side toes of a horse, the pelvis of the whale, and the human appendix

Homologous
Homologs produced by speciation.

a. orthologs
b. paralogs
a. orthologs
What are paralogs produced by?
Gene duplication
They represent genes derived from a common ancestor that diverged due to divergence of the organisms they are associated with.

a. orthologs
b. paralogs
a. orthologs
They represent genes derived from a common ancestral gene that duplicated within an organism and then subsequently diverged by accumulated mutation.
Paralogs
Process when different exons either within a gene or between two nonallelic genes are occasionally mixed which can quickly create novel multidomain proteins, leading to increased variance in species.
Exon shuffling
Movement of genetic material between organisms other than by descent in which information travels through the generations as the cell divides
Horizontal gene transfer
Ch. 21 Quiz #1

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter21/pre-test.html
:p
Ch. 21 Quiz #2

http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0003292010/student_view0/chapter21/post-test.html
:o)