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32 Cards in this Set

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Basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms

Cell Theory

States all living organisms are made up of cells.

All living organisms are composed of one or more cells

Cells are a basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.

Cells arise from existing cells only.

Plasma membrane

a special boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell.


"little organs" specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions

Eukaryotic cells

contains a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes


a distinct central organelle that is bound by membranes, control center of cell. contains most of the cells DNA, which stores information used to make proteins for the cell growth, function and reproduction.

Prokaryotic Cells

Defined as a cell without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.

Selective Permeability

membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out.

Phospholipid Bilayer

when layers of phospholipids are arranged tail to tail.

Polar head- attracted to water

non-polar tails- repelled by water.

Transport Proteins

move needed substances or waste through the plasma membrane


long hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton for the cell and assist in moving substances within the cell.


thin protein threads that help give the cell shape and enable entire cell or parts of the cell to move.


complex DNA attached to protein.

Rough ER

has ribosomes attached that produce protein for export to other cells.

Smooth ER

no ribosomes.

Carbohydrates, lipids, and phospholipids are synthesized.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serve as a site for protein and lipid synthesis.


organelles made of micro-tubes that function during cell division. They are found in pairs.


compartment where energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll (in plants)


carbohydrate substance that makes up the plant cell wall.


short numerous projections that look like hair. aid in locomotive and feeding, in some animal cells and prokaryotes.


long, tail/whip-like structure, aids in locomotion and feeding. In some animal cells, plants and prokaryotes.


net movement of particles from high to low concentration.

Dynamic Equilibrium

water molecules move back and forth but no overall change occurs


Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane


thing that dissolves in a solvent

Ex: Lemonade mix


what the solute dissolves in

Ex: Water

Hypotonic solution

hypo- under

Solution has less solute concentration that cell, water flows from low concentration to solute to high concentration of solute. A cell in hypotonic solution has water flow into the cell. Water flows to high concentration areas because its trying to even things out.

Osmotic Pressure

pressure generated from water flowing into the cell. If solution is extremely hypotonic, plasma membrane could burst from high amount of osmotic pressure.

Hypertonic Solution

hyper- above

solution has more solute concentration than cell, water flows out of cell and into solution. cells shrivel and die.

Isotonic Solution

Iso- same

Solution has same concentration as cell. No net movement of water.


process by which a cell surrounds a substance and brings it into the cell


a process by which a cell expels wastes/secretes substances outside of the cell. Reverse process of Endocytosis.