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32 Cards in this Set

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Cell

Basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms

Cell Theory

States all living organisms are made up of cells.




All living organisms are composed of one or more cells


Cells are a basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms.


Cells arise from existing cells only.

Plasma membrane

a special boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell.

Organelles

"little organs" specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions

Eukaryotic cells

contains a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes

Nucleus

a distinct central organelle that is bound by membranes, control center of cell. contains most of the cells DNA, which stores information used to make proteins for the cell growth, function and reproduction.

Prokaryotic Cells

Defined as a cell without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.

Selective Permeability

membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out.

Phospholipid Bilayer

when layers of phospholipids are arranged tail to tail.


Polar head- attracted to water


non-polar tails- repelled by water.

Transport Proteins

move needed substances or waste through the plasma membrane

Microtubes

long hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton for the cell and assist in moving substances within the cell.

Microfilaments

thin protein threads that help give the cell shape and enable entire cell or parts of the cell to move.

Chromatin

complex DNA attached to protein.

Rough ER

has ribosomes attached that produce protein for export to other cells.

Smooth ER

no ribosomes.


Carbohydrates, lipids, and phospholipids are synthesized.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serve as a site for protein and lipid synthesis.

Centrioles

organelles made of micro-tubes that function during cell division. They are found in pairs.

Thylakoid

compartment where energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll (in plants)

cellulose

carbohydrate substance that makes up the plant cell wall.

Cilia

short numerous projections that look like hair. aid in locomotive and feeding, in some animal cells and prokaryotes.

Flagella

long, tail/whip-like structure, aids in locomotion and feeding. In some animal cells, plants and prokaryotes.

Diffusion

net movement of particles from high to low concentration.

Dynamic Equilibrium

water molecules move back and forth but no overall change occurs

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

Solute

thing that dissolves in a solvent


Ex: Lemonade mix

Solvent

what the solute dissolves in


Ex: Water

Hypotonic solution

hypo- under


Solution has less solute concentration that cell, water flows from low concentration to solute to high concentration of solute. A cell in hypotonic solution has water flow into the cell. Water flows to high concentration areas because its trying to even things out.

Osmotic Pressure

pressure generated from water flowing into the cell. If solution is extremely hypotonic, plasma membrane could burst from high amount of osmotic pressure.

Hypertonic Solution

hyper- above


solution has more solute concentration than cell, water flows out of cell and into solution. cells shrivel and die.

Isotonic Solution

Iso- same


Solution has same concentration as cell. No net movement of water.

Endocytosis

process by which a cell surrounds a substance and brings it into the cell

Exocytosis

a process by which a cell expels wastes/secretes substances outside of the cell. Reverse process of Endocytosis.