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70 Cards in this Set

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Morphology
The shape and appearance of an organism's body and its component parts.
Chromosome
Gene-carrying structure consisting of a single long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g., histones). Most prokaryotic cells contain a single, circular chromosome; eukaryotic cells contain multiple noncircular (linear) chromosomes located in the nucleus.
Gene
A section of DNA (or RNA, for some viruses) that encodes information for building one or more related polypeptides or functional RNA molecules along with the regulatory sequences required for its transcription.
Nucleoid
In prokaryotic cells, a dense, centrally located region that contains DNA but is not surrounded by a membrane.
Plasmid
A small, usually circular, supercoiled DNA molecule independent of the cell's main chromosome(s) in prokaryotes and some eukaryotes.
Ribosome
A large complex structure that synthesizes proteins by using the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA strands. Consists of two subunits, each composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins.
Organelle
Any discrete, membrane-bound structure within a cell (e.g., mitochondrion) that has a characteristic structure and functions.
Cytoskeleton
In eukaryotic cells, a network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm that are involved in cell shape, support, locomotion, and transport of materials within the cell. Prokaryotic cells have a similar but much less extensive network of fibers.
Cytoplasm
All of the contents of a cell, excluding the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
Flagellum
A long, cellular projection that undulates (in eukaryotes) or rotates (in prokaryotes) to move the cell through an aqueous environment.
Glycolipid
Any lipid molecule that is covalently bonded to a carbohydrate group.
Nucleus
The large, membrane-bounded organelle that contains the genetic material, in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes.
Nuclear Envelope
The doubled-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Nuclear Lamina
The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Nucleolus
In eukaryotic cells, specialized structure in the nucleus where ribosomal RNA processing occurs and ribosomal subunits are assembled.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A network of interconnected membranous sacs and tubules found inside eukaryotic cells
Rough ER
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is dotted with ribosomes. Involved in synthesis of plasma membrane proteins, secreted proteins, and proteins localized to the ER, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes.
Lumen
The interior space of any hollow structure (e.g., the rough ER) or organ (e.g., the stomach).
Smooth ER
The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that does not have ribosomes attached to it. Involved in synthesis and secretion of lipids.
Golgi Apparatus
A eukaryotic organelle, consisting of stacks of flattened membranous sacs (cisternae), that functions in processing and sorting proteins and lipids destined to be secreted or directed to other organelles.
Cisterna
A space containing fluid, such as those occurring between the membranes of flattened sacs of the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, also between the two membranes of the nuclear envelope.
Cytosol
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm.
Perixosome

A cell organellecontaining catalase, peroxidase, and other oxidative enzymes and performingessential metabolic functions, as the decomposition of fatty acids and hydrogenperoxide.

Glyoxysome
Specialized type of peroxisome found in plant cells and packed with enzymes for processing the products of photosynthesis.
Lysosome
A small organelle in an animal cell containing acids and enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis reactions and can digest large molecules.
Autophagy
The process by which damaged organelles are surrounded by a membrane and delivered to a lysosome to be destroyed.
Phagocytosis
Uptake by a cell of small particles or cells by pinching off the plasma membrane to form small membrane-bound vesicles; one type of endocytosis.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Uptake by a cell of certain extracellular macromolecules, bound to specific receptors in the plasma membrane, by pinching off the membrane to form small membrane-bound vesicles.
Early Endosome
A small membrane-bound vesicle, formed by endocytosis, that is an early stage in the formation of a lysosome.
Late Endosome
A membrane-bound vesicle that arises from an early endosome and develops into a lysosome.
Endocytosis
General term for any pinching off of the plasma membrane that results in the uptake of material from outside the cell. Includes phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Pinocytosis
Uptake by a cell of extracellular fluid by pinching off the plasma membrane to form small membrane-bound vesicles; one type of endocytosis.
Endomembrane System
A system of organelles in eukaryotic cells that performs most protein and lipid synthesis. Includes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes.
Vacuole
A large organelle in plant and fungal cells that usually is used for bulk storage of water, pigments, oils, or other substances. Some vacuoles contain enzymes and have a digestive function similar to lysosomes in animal cells.
Mitochondria
A eukaryotic organelle that is bounded by a double membrane and is the site of aerobic respiration.
Cristae
Sac-like invaginations of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Location of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase.
Mitochondrial Matrix
Central compartment of a mitochondrion, which is lined by the inner membrane; contains the enzymes and substrates of the Krebs cycle and mitochondrial DNA.
Plastids
A double membrane bound organelle involved in the synthesis and storage of food, and is commonly found within the cells of photosynthetic organisms, like plants.
Chloroplasts
A chlorophyll-containing organelle that is bounded by a double membrane and in which photosynthesis occurs; found in most plant and algal cells. Also the location of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, and pyrimidine synthesis.
Thylakoids
A flattened, membrane-bound vesicle inside a plant chloroplast that functions in converting light energy to chemical energy. A stack of thylakoids is a granum.
Grana
In chloroplasts, a stack of flattened, membrane-bound vesicles (thylakoids) where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur.
Stroma
The fluid matrix of a chloroplast in which the thylakoids are embedded. Site where the Calvin cycle reactions occur.
Differential Centrifugation
Procedure for separating cellular components according to their size and density by spinning a cell homogenate in a series of centrifuge runs. After each run, the supernatant is removed from the deposited material (pellet) and spun again at progressively higher speeds.
Nuclear Pores
An opening in the nuclear envelope that connects the inside of the nucleus with the cytoplasm and through which molecules such as mRNA and some proteins can pass.
Nuclear Pore Complex
A large complex of dozens of proteins lining a nuclear pore, defining its shape and transporting substances through the pore.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
The RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
An RNA molecule that carries encoded information, transcribed from DNA, that specifies the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
Virus

Anyof various submicroscopic agents that infect living organisms, often causingdisease, and that consist of a single or double strand of RNA or DNA surroundedby a protein coat. Unable to replicate without a host cell, viruses aretypically not considered living organisms.

Nuclear Localization Signal
A short amino acid sequence that marks a protein for delivery to the nucleus.
Pulse Chase Experiment
A type of experiment in which a population of cells or molecules at a particular moment in time is marked by means of a labeled molecule and then their fate is followed over time.
ER Signal Sequence
A short amino acid sequence that marks a polypeptide for transport to the endoplasmic reticulum where synthesis of the polypeptide chain is completed and the signal sequence removed.
Signal Recognition Particle
A RNA-protein complex that binds to the ER signal sequence in a polypeptide as it emerges from a ribosome and transports the ribosome-polypeptide complex to the ER membrane where synthesis of the polypeptide is completed.
Glycosylation
Addition of a carbohydrate group to a molecule.
Actin Filament
A long fiber, about 7 nm in diameter, composed of two intertwined strands of polymerized actin protein; one of the three types of cytoskeletal fibers. Involved in cell movement. Also called a microfilament.
Actin
A globular protein that can be polymerized to form filaments. Actin filaments are part of the cytoskeleton and constitute the thin filaments in skeletal muscle cells.
Motor Protein
A class of proteins whose major function is to convert the chemical energy of ATP into motion. Includes dynein, kinesin, and myosin.
Cytokenesis
Division of the cytoplasm to form two daughter cells. Typically occurs immediately after division of the nucleus by mitosis or meiosis.
Cytoplasmic Streaming
The directed flow of cytosol and organelles that facilitates distribution of materials within some large plant and fungal cells. Occurs along actin filaments and is powered by myosin.
Intermediate Filament
A long fiber, about 10 nm in diameter, composed of one of various proteins (e.g., keratins, lamins); one of the three types of cytoskeletal fibers. Form networks that help maintain cell shape and hold the nucleus in place.
Nuclear Lamins
Intermediate filaments that make up the nuclear lamina layer-a lattice?like layer inside the nuclear envelope that stiffens the structure.
Microtubule
A long, tubular fiber, about 25 nm in diameter, formed by polymerization of tubulin protein dimers; one of the three types of cytoskeletal fibers. Involved in cell movement and transport of materials within the cell.
Dimers
An association of two molecules, which may be identical (homodimer) or different (heterodimer).
Microtubule Organizing Center
General term for any structure (e.g., centrosome and basal body) that organizes microtubules in cells.
Centrosome
Structure in animal and fungal cells, containing two centrioles, that serves as a microtubule-organizing center for the cell's cytoskeleton and for the mitotic spindle during cell division.
Centriole
One of two small cylindrical structures, structurally similar to a basal body, found together within the centrosome near the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Kinesin
Any one of a class of motor proteins that use the chemical energy of ATP to transport vesicles, particles, or chromosomes along microtubules.
Cilia
One of many short, filamentous projections of some eukaryotic cells containing a core of microtubules. Used to move the cell and/or to move fluid or particles along a stationary cell.
Axoneme
A structure found in eukaryotic cilia and flagella and responsible for their motion; composed of two central microtubules surrounded by nine doublet microtubules (9 + 2 arrangement).
Basal Body
A structure of nine pairs of microtubules arranged in a circle at the base of eukaryotic cilia and flagella where they attach to the cell. Structurally similar to a centriole.
Dynein
A class of motor proteins that use the chemical energy of ATP to “walk” along an adjacent microtubule. Dyneins are responsible for bending of cilia and flagella, play a role in chromosome movement during mitosis, and can transport certain organelles.