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29 Cards in this Set

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Ultradian Rhythms - AO1

More than once in 24 hours

Before EEG's - thought sleep was a dormant stage

5 sleep stages - 4 NREM and REM

Beta - awake

Alpha - 1

Theta - 2

Delta - 3+4 (SWS) - Where growth hormone is released


Sleep stages

Ultradian Rhythms - AO2 and AO3

Woken during different sleep stages

NREM - 7% dreaming

REM - 80-90% dreaming

Shows that dreaming occurs in REM

AO3 - High internal validity, low Eco + pop validity

Dreams can occur in NREM

70% reported dreaming in NREM

AO3 - Dement 'misinterpretation' - conscious thoughts at early stage of sleep thought to be dreams

EEG research into dreaming

Dreams in NREM

Ultradian Rhythms - Grenades

Reductionist (Individual Differences):

Not all people have the same sleep stage cycle

E.g. Narcoleptics go straight into REM



Circadian Rhythms - AO1

A rhythm tuned to a 24 hour clock - the sleep/wake cycle

Sleep/wake cycle

Circadian Rhythms - AO2 and AO3

World war 2 bunker - Ppts in bunker with no external cues but we're able to turn on and off lights

Followed a 25 hour sleep-wake cycle

Siffre's cave studies:

Conducted similar studies

Circadian Rhythms - Grenades

Evolutionary sense

Infradian Rhythms - AO1

A rhythm that happens over many days

E.g. The menstrual cycle

Many days

Menstrual cycle

Infradian Rhythms - AO2 and AO3

McClintock - Dorm observations - menstrual cycle synchronisation

10 year study - 29 women (9 gave pheromones, 20 took pheromones)

9 women placed cotton pads under arms and wore it - each pad then treated with alcohol and frozen

Cotton pads were wiped under noses of 20 women on a daily basis

68% of the 20 women responded to the pheromones - either shortened or lengthened depending on menstrual cycle of pheromone

AO3 - Other research supports her findings - there is an evolutionary advantage

Theoretically women would become pregnant at the same time so could breastfeed and carry out other tasks

Pop. Validity, retrospective data (would not have been filled out each day)

Basketball players - No correlation between menstrual cycle patterns as other factors can affect synchronisation (exercise, diet and stress)

Dorm observations

29 Women

Evolutionary advantage

Basketball players

Infradian Rhythms - Grenades

Deterministic - Suggests we are unable to control our biological rhythms and that biological factors determine rhythms


Endogenous Pacemakers - AO1

Birds/reptiles - Pineal gland exposed on upper surface of brain (light passes through and stimulates)

Light receptors influence secretion of melatonin which synchronises sleep

Mammals - No light receptors on pineal glands (sits behind thalamus)

Light enters through eyes (via optic chiasm) to SCN (in hypothalamus) the main body clock

SCN controls secretion on melatonin

High light = low melatonin, low light = high melatonin

Birds and reptiles - Pineal gland

Mammals - SCN


Endogenous Pacemakers - AO2 and AO3

Rat study - SCN removed and normal sleep cycle abolished

Hamsters - bred mutant hamsters to have 20hr clock

Transplanted SCN cells into brains of foetus' with normal body clock - changed to 20hrs

Transplanted normal SCN cells into original mutants - had normal cycle in a week

AO3 - Unethical, can't generalise to humans

Brain tumours - Damaged SCN - disrupted sleep-wake cycle

AO3 - Tumours could affect other areas of brain, hard to pinpoint to SCN

Isolated lungs - Circadian rhythms continued when tissues grown without control of SCN

Campbell and Murphy - Sleep lab (15 ppts)

Light shone on back of knee

Light penetration affected the system - woke 3 hours earlier than normal



Brain tumours

Isolated lungs

Sleep lab - light on back of knee

Endogenous Pacemakers - Grenades

Reductionist - Suggests only one area of the brain controls the entire cycle

Approaches/Cultural - Role of society and social learning

E.g. Siestas - sleeping mid-day to party all night



Disrupting Biological Rhythms (Jetlag) - AO1

Jetlag - Dislocation between body clock +local zeitgebers due to travel

Most detrimental in phase advance (shortens day - e.g. NY to LDN)

Less detrimental in phase delay (stay awake longer)

Symptoms: Extreme tiredness, depression and slowed reactions




Disruption of Biological Rhythms (Jetlag) - AO2 and AO3

Analysed US baseball results for 3 years

Teams that travelled east to west (Phase D) - won 44% of games

Teams that travelled west to east (phase A) won 37% of games

AO3 - Methodolgy (longitudinal), pop. Validity

How to overcome issues:

Sleep well before flight

Avoid caffeine + alcohol

Immediately adjust to local zeitgebers

Go into daylight ASAP (reduces symptoms)

Baseball results

How to overcome issues

Disrupting Biological Rhythms (Jetlag) - Grenades

Reductionist - other factors have a impact on how you feel crossing time zones

E.g. Found Jetlag to decrease with age

Individual Differences - Some people have phase tolerance (not as affected by symptoms)


Individual Differences

Disrupting Biological Rhythms (Shiftwork) - AO1

Shift work - Working patterns which enable organisations to work around the clock - employees required to work when they should be sleeping

Fluctuating shifts - Shifts change from day to night

Non-fluctuating - Constant night shifts

Non-flux is better bc body can sync and be in a routine


Decreased alertness







Disrupting Biological Rhythms (Shiftwork) - AO2 and AO3

Those who work shifts for more than 15 years are 3 x more likely to develop 💛 disease

Shift work linked to organ diseases (including kidney) could be due to direct effects of de-synchronisation or sleep disruption

Utah Chemical Plant - Used traditional backward shift rotation (7 days on each) - phase advance

Workers reported higher stress and sleep + health problems affected their productivity

Forward rotating shifts were introduced (21 days on each shift - body can adjust) - phase delay

After 9 months, workers felt less stressed with less health problems - increasing productivity

AO3 - Pop. Validity, low internal validity, home life + type of work could have affected results (e.g. Money problems could be perceived as work stress)

💛 Disease

Organ diseases

Utah chemical plant

Backwards/forward rotating shifts

Disrupting Biological Rhythms (Shiftwork) - Grenades

Reductionist - People have different circadian rhythms

E.g. Successful business men and women report having low sleep hours


Lifespan Changes - AO1

Throughout our lifetime the quantity of SWS and REM differs

Infancy - sleep is non-continuous

Sleep 16 hours a day (wake every hour - short cycles)

Two sleep stages - Quiet (immature SWS) and active (immature REM) 50-50

Childhood - 12 hours sleep per day

Parasomnias common (nightmares/sleepwalking)

30% sleep is REM

Adolescence - 9-10 hours sleep per day

In phase delay (more awake at night, find it hard to get up early)

Adulthood - 8 hours sleep per night

Development of sleep disorders (e.g. Insomnia)

25% sleep is REM

Old Age - SWS decreases to 5% and replaced with other forms of NREM

In phase advance (hard to stay awake late)

20% of sleep is REM

Quantity of sleep differs - REM + SWS





Old age

Lifespan Changes - AO2 and AO3

Infancy - Adapted mechanism:

Daytime sleeping means parents can do chores = high survival chance

Small stomach - Fed often, if sleep through night they may not be woken by cold/hunger - lower survival

Premature babies - High amount of active sleep

Productions of neurotransmitters and memories - learning is taking place (development of immature brains)

Prem. babies - brains even less mature so active sleep = 90% where healthy babies are 50% active sleep - brain development

Adolescence - hormones released at night - sleep deprivation (symptoms linked with puberty)

Hormones affect circadian clock, putting them in phase delay

School opening times - recommended to begin later to accommodate poor attention span in the morning

Adulthood (Too much sleep linked to mortality) - survey of over 1million people

People who slept 6-7 hours lower mortality risk

8 hours - 15% increase in risk of death

10 hours - 30% increase in risk of death

AO3 - Correlational, other variables (e.g. Illness leading to more sleep leading to death)

Old age - Physiological changes means sleep apnoea

SWS reduced - lower production of growth hormones, explaining low bone density and lack of energy

Sleep deficit = impaired functions

Infancy - Evolutionary advantages and premature babies

Adolescence - Hormones and school times

Adulthood - Mortality rates

Old age - Physiological, SWS and bone density

Lifespan Changes - Grenades

Reductionist - Individual Differences:

E.g. Narcoleptics go straight into REM

Role of Culture - Swiss children have lots of sleep, Israeli children have much less sleep

Amount of sleep dependent on culture and day to day life and time spent outside


Culture - Swiss and Israeli children

Restoration explanation of sleep - AO1

Oswald - High levels of brain activity in REM reflects brain recovery

Increase in body's activities (growth hormones) during SWS reflects restoration and recovery in the body

Increased no. Of neurotransmitters fired means brain and body are restored

SWS = body recovery

REM = Brain recovery/development

REM = Brain recovery/development

SWS = Body recovery

Restoration Explanation - AO2 and AO3

50-60% of new born babies sleep is REM

High levels of growth and development in brain and body is the function of sleep

Marathon Runners - Runners who competed a 57 mile marathon slept 90 mins longer than normal for two days with an increase in SWS

Longer SWS needed to compensate for strain on body

AO3/Exercise studies - No difference in sleep patterns

Babies sleep is REM

Marathon runners

Exercise studies

Restoration Explanaton - AO1

Horne - Controlled lab studies and found not all sleep is essential

Only need stage 4 SWS + REM (core sleep) as it is essential for brain

Other stages are optional

Restoration of body occurs when we are awake - restful wakefulness

Lab studies

Core sleep

Optional sleep

Restoration Explanation - AO2 and AO3

Rat study: Flower pot - REM sleep prevented so brain activity is reduced

AO3 - Unethical, cannot generalise

Randy Gardner - 11 days awake

Experienced some ill effects (small difficulties with blurred vision, garbled speech, slight paranoia)

After 14 hours sleep - he woke and suffered no lasting ill effects

AO3 - Pop. Validity, methodological issues and low ecological validity (experienced micro sleeps as not under constant supervision)

Peter Tripp - 201 hours awake for charity

3 days into experiment, became unpleasant and abusive

5 days - hallucinations and paranoia

Throughout experiment showed a continued decline in body temperature

By the end waking brain wave patterns were indistinguishable from a sleeping pattern

After 24 hours of sleep, he awoke and reported himself feeling fine

Motivation Study - 3 groups

1. Sleep deprived (72hrs) without incentives

2. Sleep deprived with financial incentives

3. Control - no deprivation/incentives

Tested on auditory vigilance task

Group 2 as good as control after one night of sleep dep. but group one significantly less

Even after 2 nights of sleep dep. group 2 still performed better than group 1

Ppts. Completely recovered and performed normally after 8 hours of sleep

Not all sleep necessary for return of normal cognitive functions (core sleep)

Motivation can override effects of deprivation to an extent

AO3 - pop. Validity (5 ppts), sleep deprived participants would have occasional micro sleeps, should have been a control group not deprived but with an incentive, unethical - but did obtain consent

Rat study

Randy Gardner - 11 days

Peter Tripp

Motivational Study

Restoration Explanation - Grenades

Reductionist - Ignores role of evolution

Science - Human research is largely unscientific



Evolutionary Explanations - AO1

Focus on behaviours that benefit species when it comes to survival and reproduction

Energy conservation - Everything needs energy and high metabolism animals use more energy

Warm blooded animals need to disburse a lot of energy to maintain constant body temp

Small animals find it problematic (esp. Animals with high metabolic rates - e.g. Mice)

Sleep serves purpose of enforced inactivity, using less energy

Hibernation = conserving energy

Small animals sleep longer BC they have a higher metabolism

Foraging requirements - If sleep necessary, time spent sleeping may be restrained by food requirements

Herbivores (cows) spend time eating plants which are poor in nutrients, so spend more time eating than sleeping

Carnivores (dogs) eat food high in nutrients so do not need to eat continuously and have more time to sleep

Predator avoidance - Sleep is constrained by predators

If an animal is a predator they can sleep for longer

Prey species sleep less as they must remain vigilant to avoid predators - be alert

Waste of time - (Meddice) Sleep helps animals to stay out of the way of predators during parts of the day when they are most vulnerable

For most animals this means sleeping in hours of darkness

Siegel - Being awake more risky than sleeping, as animal more likely to be injured

Meddice - Sleep ensures that animals stay still when they have nothing better to do with their time

Young - in the wild the best strategy to pass on genes is to stay asleep for as long as possible

Energy conservation

Foraging requirements

Predator avoidance

Waste of time

Evolutionary explanations - AO2 and AO3

Zepelin + Rechtshaffen - studied relationship between sleep length and metabolic rate across 53 mammals

Negative correlation between body size and total sleep time

Supports idea of energy conservation (small animals sleep for longer)

AO3 - No standardised procedure

Allison and Cicchetti - relationship between sleep time and degree of danger experienced by the species (lab study)

39 species - negative correlation

Does not apply to all species

Rabbits sleep as much as moles even though rabbits have a much higher danger rating Han moles

Supports predator avoidance - stay awake to be vigilant but goes against waste of time

AO3 - Only Correlational, lab based, subjective rating of animal risk made by humans, no standardised procedures

Capellini et al - Previous research flawed BC method used to collect data were not standardised so comparison between species meaningless

Focused on land mammals and found a negative correlation between metabolic rates and sleep

Found a trade off between sleep and foraging, supporting foraging requirements

Goes against energy conservation

Relationship between predator risk and sleep is a complex one - animals that sleep in exposed positions sleep less but time spent sleeping is also reduced in species that sleep socially - ought to sleep longer BC safety in numbers

AO3 - Only correlatonal, can't generalise to humans

Zeppelin - body size and sleep time

Allison - degree of danger and sleep time

Capellini - More specific

Comments on all aspects of AO1

Evolutionary explanations - Grenades

Ethics - Keeping animals in labs

Reductionist - Fails to explain complex nature of sleep

Combined approach - (Horne) Some elements elements of sleep are for restoration

Others are related to the function of unproductive hours (e.g. Conserving energy in small animals)

Core and optional sleep



Combined Approach