• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Dendrites (greek word)

Greek word = dendron = tree

Receives info from other neurons

Cell Body

Maintains normal cell functions (making energy, breaking down waste)


Contains genetic info


- Transmits info to other neurons and another tissue in the body


Space between neurons where neurotransmitters pass from one neuron to another


Chemicals released into the synapse to communicate with other neurons/tissues


Insulating material covering some axons


Support cells, one type forms myelin in brain and spinal cords

Nodes of Ranvier

Areas between myelin where action potential are regenerated


Neurons transfer info across the synapse from one to the next...

Action Potential

The inside of cell becomes more positive (excitation)


Receptors on postsynaptic neuron may accept NT


Lock and key relationship with receptors and NT. If receptor accepts the NT, gates open and let in positively charged particles

The neurotransmitter will either be ________ or will _______

inactivated and broken down by an enzyme or will participate in reuptake


- Toxin produced by a bacteria often found in spoiled meat

- Gets inside neurons and stops them from releasing NT

- Muscles don't contract (can't move=can't wrinkle)


- Binds to receptors in the brain and inhibits AP

- Contributes to blurred vision, impaired motor skills and reaction time, diminished inhibitions...


- 1 in 5 women

- 1 in 10 men

- Deficit in production or release of a NT called serotonin

- Often treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

- Prozac, Lexapro, Paxil, Effexor

Acetylcholine (Ach)

- Motor Function (neuromuscular junction)

- Learning and memory

- cholinergic drugs

- Alzheimer's Disease - cholinergic drugs enhance cholinergic binding (prevent Ach binding)

Cholinergic Drugs

- Nicotine increases cholinergic binding

- Curare, Botox, and nerve gases (sarin, soman, tabun) decrease cholinergic binding; paralysis

Dopamine (DA)

- Motion and Motor Control

- Reward (Sex, Drugs, RocknRoll)

- Cocaine and Amphetamines Increase dopaminergic activity at synapse

- Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease

Destruction of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra

- L-DOPA precursor helps by making more dopamine

- Deep Brain Stimulation

Norepinephrine (NE)

- Arousal and Alertness

- Attention and Vigilance

- Amphetamine

- Some new class anti-depressants (wellbutrin, Effexor, Remeron) also enhance NE activity


Increases NE activity

Serotonin (5-HT)

- Synthesized from tryptophan

- Regulates sleep, appetite, and mood

- Anxiety, depression, over-eating, aggression

Drugs that increase serotonergic activity

- Anti-depressants (SSRIs)

- Psychedelics -LSD, Psilocybin "magic mushrooms" - Complex interaction between 5-HT and DA)


- Endogenous Morphine

- Opiate Drugs

Endogenous Morphine

- Modifies our natural response to pain

- Injuries or high levels of activity

- Adaptive

Opiate Drugs

- Morphine

- Heroin

- Oxycontin

- Similar chemical structure


- 2% of body weight

- 20% of blood supply

- Well Protected by:

- Meninges

- Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

- Spinal tap, Hydrocephalus


- Breathing, heart rate, maintaining upright position (balance)


Sleep, arousal, facial expression


- "little brain"

- Motor function

- Balance

- Motor Coordination (first brainstem affected by alcohol)


- Lies above the pons

- Sensory reflexes, movement, pain

- Substantia nigra (DA neurons)

- Reticular formation (mood, arousal, sleep)

Subcortical Structures

- Hypothalamus

- Thalamus

- Hippocampus

- Amygdala

- Basal Ganglia


- Master regulator


- Gateway to Cortex


- Declarative memory acquisition

- Patient H.M - Couldn't form new memories


Processing fear and aggression

- S.M

Basal Ganglia

- Initiation of planned movement

- Huntington disease (can't stop moving)

Corpus Callosum

- Sits above the thalamus

- Thick band of axons

- Connects right and left cerebral hemispheres

- Allows for communication across hemispheres

- perceive as one

Cerebral Cortex

- Thin layer of cells on outer surface of brain

- Degree of convolutions predicts intellect

Frontal lobe

Complex cognitive processes

- Broca's Area

- Prefrontal Cortex

Broca's Area

- Language production

- Damage = difficulty producing words

Prefrontal Cortex

- Judgement, planning of behavior, attention

Occipital Lobe

- Primary visual cortex

- Processing basic visual input

- Blindsight (process visual info without actually seeing anything)

Temporal Lobe

- Primary auditory cortex - process incoming sounds

- Wernicke's area

- Higher visual system tasks = object and facial recognition

Wernicke's Area

- Language comprehension

- Damage = nonsensical speech

Parietal Lobe

- Primary somatosensory cortex

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

- Processing sensory info

- Touch, pain, temp, body position

- Damage = Neglect syndrome - people may not perceive part of the body or visual field


- Localization of function to one hemisphere

- process right info in left hemisphere

Function of Lateralization

- Possibly provides ability to multitask?

- Advantages in combat?

- Made language possible?

- Made us more susceptible to pathology?

Phineas Gage

- Railroad worker who had a large iron rod driven completely through his head destroying the frontal lobe (prefrontal cortex)

- Was irritable, aggressive, immature