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24 Cards in this Set

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Explain how the following mechanisms result in autoimmunity:

-DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity): before antibiotics, if you contracted tuberculosis you could control it and it would go into remission, but as an adult it would come back and would't quit. Chronic ineffective DTH leads to collatorive damage




-release of sequestered antigen: sequestered are so similar to your own antigen that the body produces antibodies that could attack your own tissues




-polyclonal B cell activation: an infectious agent comes in and produces molecules that cause B cells to nonspecifically proliferate and some of these B cells could attack self, resulting in autoimmunity

Which cytokine released with each contribute to the pathology seen:

-lyme disease: IL-I released by macrophages




-Malaria: TNF (tumor necrosis factor)




-toxic shock syndrome: caused by staph enteroxins TSST-1; cause massive cytokine release

What happens to the host with multiple sclerosis:

T cells attack the myelin sheath of nerve cells and the host will eventually die

Who proposed immune surveillance theory:

Paul Ehrlich

Why/how are cancer cells able to be recognized by the host immune system as non-self:

immune surveillance theory: state that we produce cancer cells daily but our immune system eliminates them




cancer cells are able to be recognized by CTLs, antibody, and compliment




fatal antigen

What technique used by the transplantation lab helps to minimize tissue rejection:

MLR (mixed lymphatic reaction): to see how different people's immune systems are

What has been the problem in demonstrating immune surveillance theory exists using a mouse model:

When you inject a few cancer cells into a mouse, it will develop cancer, which goes against the immune surveillance theory, but when you inject 10,000 cancer cells into a mouse, it won't develop cancer




-there is a disconnect between the human and animal model

What is the advantage of an ELISA assay over RIA (radioimmunoassay):

-ELISA is able to be thrown in the garbage


-RIA you cannot because it will give off radioactivity for a very long time



How does Polly Matzenger propose that immune response is mobilized by the host:



-by unnatural tissue death


-dangerous vs. harmless tissue

What are the 3 activating signals that are needed to activate a CTL:

1. must see Ag with MHCI


2. CD28-B7


3. IL2-IL2R

A lack of CTLs result in the host having trouble managing these types of infections:

-tumor cells


-intracellular infections

How do perforin-negative CTLs kill their target cells:

By FAS-FASL, which triggers apoptosis

What is occurring in a graft versus host reaction:

The lymphocytes from the transplant are attacking the host cells

What do NKT cells recognize with their TCR:

the recognize glycolipids, not MHCs

What are MLR (mixed lymphocyte reaction) used for:

They are used when a transplantation is needed




when the transplantation lab does a double check to see how similar/different two people's immune systems are

What 2 humoral molecule-types are good opsonins:

1. antibody


2. C3b compliment

Name 3 cell types that have FcRs:

1. macrophages


2. NK cells


3. eiosinophils

What role do Thelper17 subsets play in the host:

They can produce chronic autoimmune disease

How can Thelper subsets be differentiated from one another:

TH1: anti-viral; enhance CMI; cytokines activate CD8+ and macrophage




TH2: anti-parasitic; enhance humoral response; enhance influence of B cell activity




*known from cytokine profiles produced during long-term culture

Which Thelper cell subset would provide the most positive prognosis for leprosy infection:

TH1 because it enhances CMI and CMI is good prognosis

What role do gamma-delta T cells play in the host:

-secrete cytokines


-reside in skin/mucosa lining


-play a role in innate defense as first line of defense


-primitive property of T cells


*general receptors for large group of pathogens

What are the positive and negative selections that occur for alpha-beta T cells in the thymus:



positive selection: TCR able to bind self MHC




negative selection: selects against T cells bearing high affinity for self MHC/peptide that results in self tolerance

What is an autocrine cytokine function:

bind to cells that secreted them; they are self-stimulatory

What cytokine was known as 'Cooleys toxin':

TNF - tumor necrosis factor




causes necrosis of tumors vascular supply; causes cachexia