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52 Cards in this Set

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CD26 / dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV)
An enzyme that truncates and inactivates certain chemokines including Sdf1 / Cxc112, and selective growth factors thus inactivating them. When DPPIV is inhibited, the effects of the cytokines are enhanced.
A family of cytokines originally defined by their chemo-attractant properties, but having additional functional activity on cells.
Cord blood transplantation
Infusion of umbilical cord blood containing hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into recipients to replace the blood stem system.
The means to preserve cells long-term by placing them at very low temperature for prolonged periods of time, in order to eventually defrost and recover the cells in a full physiologically and metabolically active state.
Biologically active molecule that occurs naturally and influences the survival, proliferation, migration, or other aspects of immature or mature cells.
Hematopoietic progenitor cell
The progeny of a stem cell that has little or no self-renewal capacity, but is committed to produce matrue blood cell types of one or more lineages (like granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, etc.).
Hematopoietic stem cell
A cell that can reproduce itself (self-renew) and give rise to all the blood-forming tissue.
AGM region
Aorto-gonad mesonephros region; the first site of intraembryonic hematopoiesis and the site of origine of hematopoietic stem cells that can function in the adult.
Common progenitor of both hematopoietic and endothelial lineage; found in the yolk sac blood islands and on the floor of the dorsal aorta in early development. Not sure if they are found in adult marrow.
Hematopoietic stem cell
Self-renewing primitive cell capable of generating all blood cell lineages, including lymphoid and myeloid populations.
Progenitor cells
Lineage-restricted primitive hematopoietic and lymphoid precursors, generated from the pluripotent stem cell, but with no self-renewal potential.
Yolk sac blood islands
First site of both primitive and definitive hematopoietic development in mammals.
Embryoid bodies
Cystic teratoma-like structures consisting of semi-organized tissues representing all three embryonic germ layers.
Hemangioblast (blast colony forming cell, BL-CFC)
Embryonic cell representing a common progenitor of both the endothelial and hematopoietic lineages.
Primitive hematopoiesis
Primitive hematopoiesis is the first wave of embryonic blood development that occurs in the yolk sac and generates nucleated erythrocytes that express embryonic globins.
Definitive hematopoiesis
The wave of hematopoiesis that occurs in the para-aortic region of the developing embryo and generates mature myeloid and lymphoid lineages for the life of the organism.
Burst forming unit-erythroid, the earliest known erythroid precursor cell that eventually differentiates into erythrocytes.
Colony forming unit-erythroid, a late erythroid precursor cell (after the BFU-E) that eventually differentiates into erythrocytes.
Embryoid bodies (EBs)
Cystic aggregates of ES cells when plated in ultra-low surface culture plastics and allowed to differentiate resulting in semi-organized tissues representing all three germ layers.
A common progenitor for both hematopoietic and vascular lineages.
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (AKA flow-cytometry).
A technology that combines detection of fluorescent indicator molecules with the physical isolation of single cells that are labeled with the fluorescent molecules and thus allows for the separation of cell populations, including the isolation of stem cells.
Hematopoietic progenitor cell
A type of cell found in bone marrow and other tissues that have lost the potential for self-renewal, but is still multipotent.
Hematopoietic stem cell
A type of cell found in the bone marrow and other tissues that possesses the defining characteristics of self-renewal and multipotency.
Spleen colony-forming assay
An assay that detected the presence of HSCs after injection into an irradiated subject.
Originally we didn't know if the growths seen were from a single cell so we said that the growths originated from "CFU-S" (colony-forming units-spleen).
Supravital fluorescent probe
A fluorescent molecule that can enter a living cell and bind to a specific subcellular component (think DNA, organelle, etc.) and thus be used in techniques like FACS.
Any natural or synthetic materials that interface with living tissue and / or biological fluids.
Cell therapy
The transplantation of cells from various sources to replace or repair damaged tissue and / or cells.
The developmental process in which cells change their genetic programs to become more restricted in their potential and to mature into functional cells of various tissues and organs.
Embryonic stem cells
Cells derived from the embryo that can self-renew and give rise to all the cells of the adult organism.
A porous structure typically made out of degradable polymers within which cells are seeded. These provide geometrical structure for cells to reorganize and from 3D multicellular tissues.
Tissue engineering
The interdisciplinary field that applies the principle of engineering and the life science toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function.
Human-made processes, substances, devices, or systems that imitate nature.
An apparatus designed for the ex vivo construction of tissue or organ-like structures that provides appropriate 3D orientation and nutrition to cells that are seeded within it. Current designs may also include the application of appropriate physiological stresses to condition the construct for better performance upon in vivo transplantation.
A temporary or permanent framework used to support cell growth and differentiation that may be natural or synthetic and may or may not include morphogens and / or growth factors that influence the pattern of proliferation and differentiation.
Tissue engineering
A field that encompasses multiple and diverse disciplines to use cells, materials, and bioactive factors in various combinations, to restore and even improve tissue structure and function.
Bone marrow-derived hepatocyte
An engrafted hepatocyte with a chromosomal or expression marker that identifies it as possessing genetic material from a (usually transplanted) bone marrow cell;
can be the product of hematopoietic cell / hepatocyte fusion event, differentiation by a hematopoietic progenitor with hepatic lineage potential, or differentiation by a hepatic-committed marrow resident progenitor.
Liver stem cell
A poorly characterized cell proposed as the precursor of oval cells, or to comprise the most primitive subset of oval cells;
the term is also used to refer broadly to all liver progenitor cells.
Oval cell
A small cell with an oval-shaped nucleus and a high nuclear / cytoplasmic size ratio that emerges in the portal zone under conditions of chronic liver damage;
can differentiate into the hepatocyte or bile duct epithelial lineages and thus is a bipotential liver progenitor.
Pancreatic liver stem cell
A cell located in the pancreas that can generate hepatocytes to support liver repair upon transplantation;
may be a bipotential hepato-pancreatic precursor or an extrahepatic progenitor committed to hepatic differentiation.
Genetic lineage tracing
The use of permanent labeling, usually DNA recombination, to mark a defined cellular population and trace its progeny.
A transcription factor expressed in endocrine progenitor cells of the embryonic pancreas.
Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene-1;
a transcription factor essential for pancreas development.
During embryongenesis, Pdx1 is expressed in stem / progenitor cells, giving rise to all cell types in the adult pancreas.
During prenatal life, its expression becomes restricted to beta cells.
Muscle stem cells;
mononucleate cells that function to regenerate damaged myofibers through a process of proliferation, followed by subsequent fusion with existing or nascent myofibers.
Large, multinucleate cells that contain a contractile apparatus, composed primarily of actin and myosin family proteins, to facilitate movement.
Muscle grups are composed of bundles of myofibers.
Satellite cell
An anatomical designation of a mononuclear cell that sits on a myofiber juxtaposed to the plasma membrane of the myofiber, yet is ensheathed by the basal lamina membrane, which also surrounds the myofiber.
Cardiac hypertrophy
Cellular response of cardiac cells to an increas in biomechanical stimui, characterized by increased cell size, enhanced protein synthesis and sarcomere organization.
Prolonged maladaptive hypertrophy is associated with heart failure.
Formation of fibrous scar tissue after damage of an organ, with complete substitution of the cells constituting the organ with collagenous material.
Extended fibrosis leads to organ impairment and loss of functionality.
Capacity of certain adult vertebrates to repair damaged organs in a well-defined spatial and temporal plan that reconstitutes the original organ.
Stem cell
A cell capable of indefinite self-renewal and differentiation into diverse and contextually specific cell lineages.
Beta cell
Insulin-producing cell contained within pancreatic islets.
Islet neogenesis
Generation of new pancreatic islets from precursor cells.
Islet transplantation
Transplantation of isolated pancreatic islets with the intent of curing diabetes.