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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The myocardium is primarily
a. elastic tissue
b. epithelial tissue
c. cardiac muscle
d. autorhythmic cells
c. cardiac muscle
During the plateau phase of a cardiac muscle cell's action potential, the membrane stays:
a. depolarized as potassium exits and calcium enters.
b. depolarized as potassium enters and calcium exits.
c. repolarized as sodium enters and calcium exits.
d. hyperpolarized as sodium and calcium exit.
e. hyperpolarized as potassium enters and calcium exits.
a. depolarized as potassium exits and calcium enters.
Absence of T wave on ECG recording means there is no
a. atrial repolarization
b. atrial depolarization
c. ventricular repolarization
d. ventricular depolarization
c. ventricular repolarization
During the isovolumetric phase of ventricular systole, the
a. atria are contracting and the ventricles are relaxing
b. av valves and semilunar valves are closed
c. blood is ejected into the circuits
d. all of the above
b. av valves and semilunar valves are closed
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of flow of an electrical impulse through the heart?
a. A-V node, A-V bundle, Purkinje fibers, S-A node
b. S-A node, Purkinje fibers, A-v node, A-V bundle
c. S-A node, A-V node, A-V bundle, Purkinje fibers
d. A-V node, S-A node, Purkinje fibers, A-V bundle
c. S-A node, A-V node, A-V bundle, Purkinje fibers
The left ventricle refills with blood in preparation for initiation of the next cardiac cycle during ventricular
a. systole
b. contraction
c. depolarization
d. diastole
d. diastole
Release of norepinephrine from nerve fibers causes
a. decreased heart rate and force of contraction
b. increased heart rate but decreased force of contraction
c. increased heart rate and force of contraction
d. decreased heart rate but increased force of contraction
c. increased heart rate and force of contraction
The Starling law of the heart states that
a. the volume of blood that enters the heart during diastole directly affects the force of contraction at systole
b. a reduction in body temperature results in lower heart rate
c. each period of systole must be followed by a period of diastole
d. the presence of negative ionotropic substances increases myocardial contractility
a. the volume of blood that enters the heart during diastole directly affects the force of contraction at systole
When the left ventricle fails, blood backs up in the lungs, causing
a. fibrillation
b. rheumatic fever
c. heart murmurs
d. pulmonary edema
d. pulmonary edema
During exercise, increased muscle contraction helps return more blood to the heart. This would lead to
a. Decrease cardiac output
b. decreased heart rate
c. increased stroke volume
d. decreased stroke volume
c. increased stroke volume
The function of the coronary sinus is to:
a. connect the top and bottom halves of the heart.
b. guide the sorts out of the heart.
c. guide the inferior vena cava into the right atrium.
d. take blood from the coronary circulation to the right atrium.
e. shunt blood from the right atrium to the left atrium.
d. take blood from the coronary circulation to the right atrium.
A network of small arteries called the ____________ provides a blood supply to the tunica externa of very large vessels.
a. vasa vasorum
b. companion vessels
c. distributing arteries
d. fenestrated arteries
e. thoroughfare channels
a. vasa vasorum
In arteries, the thickest layer of the wall is the:
a. tunica externa.
b. tunica media.
c. tunica intima.
d. tunica adventitia.
e. None of these because all the layers are of the same dimension
b. tunica media.
The largest arteries of the body are classified as:
a. muscular arteries or distributing arteries
b. arterioles.
c. elastic arteries or conducting arteries
d. muscular and elastic since they have the same dimensions.
e. None of these answers is correct.
c. elastic arteries or conducting arteries
Precapillary sphincters will:
a. control blood flow into the true capillaries.
b. cause blood to flow directly from the metarteriole into the post capillary venule.
c. open when the tissue needs nutrients.
d. close when the tissue's needs have been met.
e. All of these answers are correct
e. All of these answers are correct
If someone suffered from hypertension, such that the blood pressure in their capillaries was elevated, then net filtration pressure would be:
a. above normal.
b. below normal.
a. above normal.
Blood flow is:
a. directly related to both the pressure gradient and the resistance.
b. directly related to the pressure gradient but inversely related to the resistance.
c. inversely related to both the pressure gradient and the resistance.
d. inversely related to the pressure gradient but directly related the resistance.
b. directly related to the pressure gradient but inversely related to the resistance.
Increased cardiac output _________ the blood pressure.
a. decreases
b. increases
c. will not affect
b. increases
Excitation of the vasomotor center results in:
a. increased sympathetic activity and predominantly more vasoconstriction than vasodilation.
b. increased parasympathetic activity and predominantly more vasodilation than vasoconstriction.
c. increased autonomic activity that increases heart rate and dilates blood vessels.
d. decreased autonomic activity that decreases heart rate and constricts blood vessels.
e. redistribution of blood flow away front the skeletal muscles and toward the skin.
a. increased sympathetic activity and predominantly more vasoconstriction than vasodilation.
Epinephrine, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone each cause an increase in blood pressure.
True or False
True
During a cardiac cycle, how many of the four chambers contract at any one time?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 4
d. Highly variable, depending on the heart beat rate
e. None of these answers is correct
b. 2
Large doses of certain stimulants can lead to dangerous increases in heart rates. Such a stimulant is ____________________________
a. positive chronotropic agent.
b. negative chronotropic agent.
c. positive inotropic agent.
d. negative inotropic agent.
a. positive chronotropic agent.
Which of the following would cause a decrease in cardiac output?
a. An increase in venous return
b. An increase in afterload
c. Addition of positive inotropic agents
d. An increase in heart rate
b. An increase in afterload
The driving force propelling blood through the circulatory system is the difference in blood pressure from the beginning of a blood vessel to its end. This difference is known as the blood pressure ________.
gradient
When blood is flowing out of the left ventricle the bicuspid valve is _____ and the aortic semilunar valve is ____.
close; open
List all factors that affects EDV and ESV.
EDV: venous return, Hr
ESV: SV, afterload, contraction (Frank Starling's Law)
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes _________.
a. a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
b. a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
c. no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate
d. no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration
a. a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that _________.
a. the heart would stop, since the vagal nerves trigger the heart to contract
b. the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
c. the AV node would become the pacemaker of the heart
d. parasympathetic stimulation would increase, causing a decrease in heart rate
b. the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
When a clot forms on the plaque in a coronary vessel obstructing blood flow to the muscle, the condition is referred to as
a. angioplasty
b. myocardial infarction
c. coronary thrombosis
d. pulmonary embolism
c. coronary thrombosis
Which area of the heart receives blood from the systemic veins?
a. right ventricle
b. left ventricle
c. aorta
d. right atrium
d. right atrium
Which one of the following blood vessels carry oxygenated blood?
a. superior vena cava
b. inferior vena cava
c. pulmonary vein
d. pulmonary artery
c. pulmonary vein
The sinoatrial node is located in the
a. right atrium
b. left atrium
c. aorta
d. left ventricle
a. right atrium
Cardiac Output is measured as the product of heart rate and the ______
a. pressure of the blood in the heart
b. blood volume
c. stroke volume
d. pulse rate
c. stroke volume
The second heart sound is due to closure of:
a. mitral valve
b. tricuspid valve
c. gastric valve
d. semilunar valves
d. semilunar valves
The P wave of an ECG represents
a. depolarization of the atrium
b. depolarization of the ventricles
c. relaxation of the atrium
d. contraction of the whole heart
a. depolarization of the atrium
Which one of the following is caused by a decrease in venous return to the heart:
a. a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output
b. a decrease in stroke volume and an increase in cardiac output
c. an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output
d. no change in stroke volume and cardiac output
a. a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output
The coronary sulcus is a groove that
a. marks the border between atria and the ventricles
b. marks the boundary between rt. & let. Ventricles
c. separates coronary artery from coronary vein
d. marks the boundary between rt. & let atria
a. marks the border between atria and the ventricles
The plateau phase of the cardiac muscle is due
a. the movement of fewer sodium ions across the cell membrane
b. a decrease in Ca++ in the cardiac muscle tissue
c. increased membrane permeability to Na+
d. the calcium channel remain open longer periods of time
d. the calcium channel remain open longer periods of time
Veins in the myocardium drains into the
a. anterior interventricular artery
b. marginal artery
c. posterior ventricular artery
d. coronary sinus
d. coronary sinus
Nerve impulses that reach the heart by means of the vagus nerve are
a. sympathetic and caused increased heart rate
b. sympathetic and caused decreased heart rate
c. parasympathetic and cause decreased heart rate
d. parasympathetic and cause increased heart rate
c. parasympathetic and cause decreased heart rate
When the left ventricle contracts the distance from the apex to the base
a. increases
b. decreases
c. remains unchanged
b. decreases
An ECG provides direct information about valve function
a. True
b. False
b. False
The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by spasm of coronary arteries is
a. ischemia
b. pericarditis
c. Angina Pectoris
d. Myocardial infarction
c. Angina Pectoris
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is
significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
Arteries always carry blood away from the heart
a. True
b. False
a. True
Capillaries with an incomplete basement membrane are called
sinusoidal capillaries
Blood is carried away from the heart by
systemic arteries
The Circle of Willis involves blood flow through the liver
a. True
b. False
b. False
Peripheral resistance:
increases as blood viscosity increases
The longest vein in the body is the
great saphenous vein
Flow of blood in the veins of the lower limbs is regulated by the presence of valves
a. True
b. False
a. True
Circulation time of a red blood cell in an average resting human is about
1 minute
During ventricular diastole, the bicuspid and tricuspid valves are closed
a. True
b. False
b. False
Veins that contain valves are located mostly in the
lower limbs
If cardiac output rises due to an increase in stroke volume or heart rate, but resistance stays the same
a. blood pressure will increase
b. Both Blood Pressure and and blood flow will increase
b. Both Blood Pressure and and blood flow will increase
Hypovolemic circulatory shock is most directly related to loss of blood bolume
a. True
b. False
a. True