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178 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What do hormones do in the body?

- modulate growth and development, homeostasis, reproduction, and others

- each have similar chemical structures but with specific receptors

Growth Hormone

- hypothalamus signals the anterior pituitary gland to release GH to the liver, bone, and skeletal muscle

- excess GH leads to gigantism and acromegaly

- not enough GH leads to dwarfism


- hypothalamus signals posterior pituitary glans to release OT to the breast to stimulate ejection of milk from mammary glands


- secreted by thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are too high

- stimulates bones to take up calcium leading to a decrease in blood calcium

Parathyroid hormone

- secreted by the parathyroid glands when blood calcium levels are too low

- stimulate bones to release calcium, kidneys to reabsorb calcium, and intestines absorb calcium


- secreted by the pancreas when blood glucose levels are high

- stimulates liver to stop breakdown of glycogen to glucose, muscle cells to take up glucose, and adipose tissue to use glucose to form fat

- leads to decrease in blood glucose


- secreted by pancreas when blood glucose levels are low

- stimulates liver to break down glycogen into glucose, leading to an increase in blood glucose levels

Where do hormones come from?

- endocrine glands (posterior and anterior pituitary, thyroid, pineal, parathyroid, adrenal cortex and medulla, etc.

- organs that produce hormones as a secondary function ( ex. kidney)

How does the nervous system interact with the endocrine system to form the foundation of the CCN?

- some nerves release hormones directly into the bloodstream (neurohormones)

- all primary endocrine glands and secondary endocrine tissue are innervated by neurons of the autonomic nervous system

- nerve signals, via local neurotransmitter release, can modulate hormone secretion

- neurons in the CNS and PNS, along with astrocyte-like cells in the PNS, have receptors for many hormones

Hormones of the pituitary gland

- posterior pituitary (oxytocin)

- anterior pituitary (GH)

Hormones of the pancreas

- has endocrine and exocrine (secretes outside the body) function

- alpha cells secrete glucagon

- beta cells secrete insulin

- pancreatitic islet structures have cells that produce both insulin and glucagon

- diseases include pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

Hormones and hormone modifying drugs that enhance athletic performance

- world anti-doping agency

- prohibited list includes GH

Anabolic steroids

- clear risks are not a deterrent of anabolic steroid use

- effective dose is often too high (supraphysiological)

- not timed to mimic natural hormone production

- hormones are releases according to complex ultradian, circadian, and infradian rhythms

- injections are administered in one large bolus, not gradually as our body does naturally

First line of defense (physical)

- tears

- skin

- large intestine

- saliva

- respiratory tract

- stomach

- bladder

Defense of tears

- wash away irritating substances and microbes

- lysozyme kills many bacteria

Defense of skin

- provides physical barrier to the entrance of microbes

- acidic pH discourages growth of organisms

- sweat and oil gland secretions kill many bacteria

Defense of large intestine

- normal bacterial inhabitants keep invaders in check

Defense of saliva

- washes microbes from the teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth

Defense of respiratory tract

- mucous traps organisms

- cilia sweep away trapped organisms

Defense of stomach

- acid kills organisms

Defense of bladder

- urine washes microbes from urethra

Second line of defense

- resident defensive cells and proteins, inflammation, fever

Defense of inflammation

- in presence of foreign objects blood vessels widen to carry defensive cells and chemicals to damaged tissue and remove toxins (causes redness)

- increase metabolic rate of cells in the injured area to speed healing (causes heat)

- capillaries become more permeable allowing fluid containing defensive chemicals, blood-clotting factors, oxygen, nutrients, and defensive cells to seep into the injured area (causes swelling)

- pain hampers movement, allowing the injured area to heal

Protein-based defense - lysis by complement

- activated complement proteins form holes in the cell wall and membrane of the bacterium

- the bacterium can no longer maintain a constant internal environment, and water enters the cell

- the bacterium bursts

Cell-based defense - destruction by phagocytosis

- phagocytes engulf bacteria

Defense of fever

- elevated thermoregulatory set point as a result of infection, microbial toxins, etc.

What is the local support and defense system?

- 4th component of the CCN

- described as maintenance and support system, adaptation and repair system, resident defense system, and migrant defense system

Parenchymal cells

- in glands and organs

- most prominent cell type in terms of function and mass

- the critical 'functional' portion of the gland or organ

Parenchymal cells in liver

- hepatocyte

Parenchymal cells in skin

- keratinocyte

Parenchymal cells in skeletal muscle

- skeletal muscle cell/myocyte

Parenchymal cells in the heart

- cardiomyocyte

Parenchymal cells in the kidney

- tubule epithelial cells

Parenchymal cells in the lungs

- alveolar epithelial cells

Parenchymal cells in the brain

- neurons

Parenchymal cells in the small intestine

- enterocytes

Parenchymal cells in adipose tissue (endocrine glands)

- adipocytes

Parenchymal cells in the glands

- mixture of secretory cells

Non-parenchymal cells

- form the basic logic unit of the local support and defense system

- supports the functional portion of the gland/organ

Cells circulating in the blood

- plasma is a medium for transporting materials in the blood

- the formed elements consist of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets


- cell fragments essential to blood clotting

White blood cells

- defend the body against disease

- migrate into and out from peripheral tissues

- exit a capillary by squeezing between the cells of the vessel walls

Red blood cells

- transport oxygen

Continuous production and movement of cells into the blood

- stem cells are undifferentiated cells in the red bone marrow that give rise to all the formed elements

- stem cells divide and become specialized

- mature formed elements are specialized for specific functions

Attack or support?

- a self (MHC) marker labels the body's cells as self or 'friend'

- an antigen is a molecule, often on the surface of a pathogen, that the immune system recognizes as a specific 'foe'

Process of attack

1) an invader enters the body (threat)

2) a macrophage encounters, engulfs, and digests the invader (detection), and places a piece of the antigen on its surface with the self (MHC) marker

3) the macrophage presents the antigen to a helper T cell and secretes a chemical that activates the helper T cell (alert)

Antibody-based immunity (B lymphocyte) route of attack

4) helper T cell activates a naive B cell (alarm)

5) naive B cell divides into a plasma cell (building specific defenses)

6) plasma cell secretes antibodies (defense)

7) antibodies target pathogens or toxins outside of cells

Cell-based immunity (T-lymphocyte) route of attack

4) helper T cell activates naive cytotoxic T cell (alarm)

5) naive cytotoxic T cell divides into effector cytotoxic T cell (building specific defenses)

6) effector cytotoxic T cell targets cells infected with intracellular pathogen, cancer cells, cells of organ transplants, etc. (defense)

What is left after the attack?

- Memory helper T cells, memory cytotoxic T cells, and memory B cells remain and provide a quick response to the antigen in a future encounter (continued surveillance)

Components of the cardiovascular-lymphatic system

- fluids (blood, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, extracellular fluid)

- vessels (blood vessels, lymph vessels, cerebrospinal fluid vessels

- organs (heart, kidney, spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes)

- innervation (sympathetic, parasympathetic, sensory)

- stem cell pool (bone marrow)


- no red blood cells

- only plasma and white cells

- similar to blood plasma

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

- can only be drawn out very slowly

- similar to plasma

Diseases and disorders of the fluids of the circulatory system

- anemia

- coagulation disorders

- leukemias

- white blood cell deficiencies/immuno deficiencies

- dehydration/hemoconcentration

- blood loss

Coagulation disorders

- platelet dysfunction: platelet aggregation

- fibrin network dysfunction: fibrin network traps red blood cells and platelets, forming a blood clot

White blood cell deficiencies

- X-SCID: must live in sterile bubble, can't make white blood cells

- HIV-AIDS: decreased helper T cells, Kaposi's sarcoma

Blood vessels

- conduct blood in continuous loops

- high pressure arteries and arterioles with more smooth muscle

- lower pressure veins and venules

- standard capillary in tissues is one cell layer, porous

- lung is environmental interface

- systemic and pulmonary circuits

- organs supplied with fresh blood in parallel

- blood held mainly in systemic veins and venules

Lymphatic vessels

- collect material from the extracellular fluid at capillary beds and from lymph

- lymphatic capillaries have a blunt, closed end

- move lymph back to the major veins of the blood system

- lymphatic system is not in a continuous loop

- low pressure, fluid moves very slowly

- flaps produce openings larger than those in blood capillaries for fluid to enter through

- connected to lymph nodes containing mostly white blood cells

Functions of blood vessels

- arterioles: main site of blood flow and blood pressure regulation

- capillaries: nutrient, waste, fluid exchange at local level

- venules: main site of lymphocytes crossing from blood to lymph nodes

Blood vessel velocity and surface area

- high velocity and small surface area = direct, rapid conductance of blood

- low velocity an large surface area = optimal exchange (occurs in capillaries)


- valves prevent backflow

- contraction of skeletal muscles squeeze veins

- breathing causes pressure changes that move venous blood towards the heart

Diseases and disorders of the vessels of the circulatory system

- arteries: aneurysms, atherosclerosis

- veins: varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis

- lymphatic vessels: lymphadema

- CSF: hydrocephalus

Cerebral aneurysm

- can lead to burst vessel or blood clot


- artery becomes obstructed with plaque and eventually a blood clot

- starts with pre-teens in Canada


- child with a ventricular cannula shunted to the abdominal cavity due to excess CSF

- cannula inserted into a cavity of the brain to drain CSF into the abdomen

- can occur in the elderly (often undetected)

Function of heart

- pump blood

Function of kidney

- filter and adjust volume and content of blood plasma

- indirectly control blood pressure

Function of spleen

- filter and remove old red cells and platelets

- site of maturation of white blood cells

Function of thymus

- site of maturation of white blood cells

- major site of antigen presentation and memory in B cell populations

Function of tonsils

- site of storage and maturation of white blood cells


- tonsil removal

- function passed on to other organs


- thymus removed

- used most in childhood

- can survive without it in adulthood


- spleen removed

- spleen-like structure tends to grow back and take on the function


- kidney removal

- can remove one and the other almost doubles in size

- need at least one


- heart removal

- can have heart transplants

- artificial hearts

The heart as a muscular pump

- made of cardiac muscle tissue called myocardium

- different from skeletal muscle due to motor input

- neural input is involuntary, autonomic

- gap junctions very fast, contract as a unit

- no fibre recruitment like skeletal muscle (syncytium)

- very high oxidative capacity (lots of mitochondria)

- fatigue resistant

Parts of the heart

- 4 chambers (2 atria, 2 ventricles)

- valves between chambers

- right side (pulmonary circuit) contains blood rich in carbon dioxide returning from the tissues and flowing out to the lungs

- left side (systemic circuit) contains blood rich in oxygen returning from the lungs and flowing out to the tissues

Valves of the heart

- atrioventrical (AV) valves are located between each atrium and ventricle (tricuspid, mitral)

- semilunar valves are located between each ventricle and its artery (pulmonary, aortic)

- give rise to the typical "lub-dub" sounds of the heartbeat

- can be heard by a physician with a stethoscope


- narrowing of a valve

- may be congenital, due to calcification, or scarring from rheumatic fever

- varies in terms of seriousness

- can cause fatigue and shortness of breath, exercise intolerance, heart failure, fluid buildup in lungs, death

- tends to occur in aortic valve between left ventricle and aorta and mitral valve between left atria and ventricle

Artificial heart valves

- non-biological

- biological

Non-biological valves

- supposed to last 20+ years

- requires consistent anticoagulant therapy (blood thinners)

- could get stuck

- resistance to flow, vulnerability to backflow and regurgitation

Biological valves

- usually pig

- referred to as xenotransplantation

- requires immunosuppression therapy, which increases risk for other ailments

Cardiac cycle

- Systolic blood pressure (pumping, higher number)

- atrial systole: both atria contract and force blood into ventricles

- ventricular systole: both ventricles contract, right ventricle forces blood into the pulmonary trunk, left ventricle forces blood into the aorta

- diastolic blood pressure (lower number)

- early diastole: atria and ventricles are relaxed and fill passively

- later diastole: ventricles are still relaxing and filling passively


- overgrowth of ventricular muscle

- sign of being overworked

- van be bad if caused by high blood pressure and narrowing of aortic valve, causing heart to have to work harder

- good for athletes

Electrical aspects of the heart

- SA node and AV node

- bundles of conducting (His) muscle cells

- SA node is initiated

- atria contract, signal reaches AV node

- signal conducted to Purkinje fibres

- atria fully contracted

- ventricles contract

Miscommunication in the heart

- causes arrhythmias such as tachycardia and bradycardia (abnormal SN node firing, fairly common)

- many heart attacks end in fibrillation, when cells depolarize independently (can be quickly fatal)

Repairing the electrical aspects of the heart

- pacemakers

- disrupted by shocks, airport scanners, personal computing devices

Autonomic nerve system control of heart rate

- different levels of spinal cord connected to different nodes/areas of the heart

- controls resting heart rate (bpm)

Hormonal control of heart rate and contraction strength

- adrenal medulla releases epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%)

- travels through blood vessels to SA node in the heart

- heart rate can increase to ~200 bom and cardiac output can go from 5 to 25 L/min or even 40 L/min in elite athletes

Blood supply to the heart

- superior vena cava

- inferior vena cava

- aorta

- left coronary vein and artery

- pulmonary veins

- pulmonary trunk

- right coronary artery and vein

- blockage of one the the major coronary arteries leads to a heart attack


- catheter and balloon are threaded into the coronary artery to the point of blockage

- balloon is inserted into the blocked area and inflated

- plaque is pushed to the artery walls and held there by stent


- calcified fatty deposits within arteries

- caused by genes, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, dietary saturated and trans fats, high LDL:HDL, inflammation


- cutting away of plaque using micro-surgical blades

Coronary artery bypass graft

- vein from leg used to bypass blocked artery in heart

- usually saphenous vein

- adapts to take on artery characteristics

- sometimes the brachial artery

Cardiac scar tissue prevention

- the Red Heart Pill

- the Cardio-Polypill

- includes low-dose aspirin, a statin drug, 1/3 dose of 3 types of blood pressure-lowering drugs


- cues from the environment as to how to synchronize activities of the system

- sets the clocks of the human physiome

- sunlight is the evolutionary zietgebar for our sleep-wake cycle, but can be overridden by exocrine hormones/pheromones

Second brain

- nervous system involved in GI tract

- "enteric" nervous system

- two-way communication between the brain and the second brain

- enteric nervous system sends neurohormones through the blood back to the central nervous system

Parts of the GI tract

- 6 sphincters generally prevent lumen contents from moving backwards

- oral cavity

- upper esophogeal sphincter (conscious control of swallowing)

- esophagus

- lower esophageal sphincter (controlled by second brain)

- stomach

- pyloric sphincter (controlled by second brain)

- small intestine

- ileocecal valve (controlled by second brain)

- large intestine

- internal anal sphincter (controlled by second brain)

- anus/external anal sphincter (conscious control of defecation)

Basic processes of GI tract

- motility

- secretion

- digestion

- absorption

- excretion

- these processes go on at all times

Structure of GI tract

- serosa (outermost layer)

- muscularis externa

- submucosa

- mucosa

- second brain innervates the muscularis externa, submucosa, and mucosa

- single cell layer separates the inside and outside of the body (intestinal epithelium)

Properties of GI tract

- 28 ft long, folded extensively

- luminal surface area equal to that of a tennis court (200-400 sq. meters), due to extensive villus/microvillus

- has a highly variable transit time for an ingested meal

- senses and expels noxious substances through diarrhea and vomiting

-continuously interacts with the resident gut microbiome consisting of bacteria, archaea, and small eukaryotes

- protects against pathogenic microbes that enter/reside in the tract

Motility of GI tract

- multiple layers of smooth muscle contract

- peristalsis in esophagus, movement in one direction

- segmentation in small intestine, movement in both directions to allow greater mixing

- stomach and large intestine are used in combination/intermediate forms

Diseases and disorders of motility in the GI tract

- gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): common

- gastroparesis: pyloric sphincter

- small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS): ileocecal valve

- chronic constipation: common

Secretion in GI tract

- saliva from salivary glands

- acid from gastric glands

- pancreatic juice from the exocrine pancreas

- bile from the liver

- mucous secretion from Goblet cells

- defensins from Paneth cells

- secretory IgA from specialized epithelial cells

- paracrine messengers and hormones from gut epithelial cells

Diseases and disorders of secretion in the GI tract

- cystic fibrosis

- inflammatory and secretory diarrhea

- achlorhydria (low acid production or excessive use of antacid drugs)

- xerostomia (dry mouth, lack of saliva)

Determination of the 'meal eating experience'

- motivation to eat (hedonic hunger, homeostatic hunger)

- nutritional status (deficiency/adequacy/excess of nutrients/energy)

After eating

- within 48h of consuming food it is processed by the body

- broken down into amino acids (protein), monosaccharides (carbohydrate), fatty acids, vitamins, minerals

Types of nutrients

- essential, conditionally essential, non-essential

- deficiency in an essential nutrient = nutritional deficiency disease

- essential nutrients cannot be synthesized by the body and therefore must be consumed

Cephalic phase of digestion and absorption

- chemical and mechanical digestion begins in the mouth

- chewing/mastication

- all senses involved in preparing to eat, large areas of the brain light up when we prepare to take our first bite

- salivary secretion under autonomic control to soften and lubricate food and provide amylase and lipase

The tongue

- contains taste buds or papillae that are able to detect bitter, sweet, salty, sour, and savory/umami

- no regional segregation for these flavours on the tongue

- together with receptors in the nasal cavity the tongue transmits flavour and smell information to the CNS to stimulate salivary glands to begin digestion

Standard chemicals of tastes

- sweet: sucrose

- sour: HCl (acid)

- salty: NaCl

- bitter: quinine

- savoury/umami: L-theanine

Gastric phase of digestion and absorption

- salivary hormones promote integrity of the epithelium of the gastric mucosa

- various cells within the gastric mucosa secrete useful substances

- protein and fat digested in the stomach

- alcohol and aspirin partly absorbed in the stomach but damage the stomach epithelium

Small inteestinal phase of digestion and absorption

- bulk of digestion and absorption occurs in the SI

- duodenum: short in length but villus height and number of microvillus maximize absorption

- jejunum

- ileum: long in length but villus height is low and microvilli per cell is low

Accessory organs of the SI

- liver, gallbladder, pancreas all connect to duodenum through sphincter of Oddi

- if duodenal epithelial cells sense fat in the lumen, they signal the gallbladder to release bile

Secretions into the lumen of the SI

- bicarbonate (from cells in the intestinal epithelium and in pancreatic secretions)

- digestive enzymes (from the pancreas)

- bile acids (from the liver/gallbladder)

Digestive enzymes in SI

- poly- and disaccharidases (break down carbohydrates)

- proteases and peptidases (break down proteins)

- lipases (break down fats)

- for a chemical to be absorbed in the SI it must be soluble in the lumen fluid

Large intestinal phase of digestion and absorption

- ileal chyme containing any unabsorbed nutrients, hormones and chemical messengers, soluble and insoluble fibre, microbes, cellular debris, and excretion products from the liver enter the LI

- the colonic epithelium absorbs water and simple ions

- resident microbes digest and absorb what chemicals they can through fermentation and produce short-chain fatty acids as end products

- resident microbes produce some vitamins as a byproduct of their metabolism

- resident microbes produce gases during their digestion and consumption of the ileal chyme

- newly arriving live microbes seek to get a foothold in the microbial ecosystem and multiply

Gastric bypass surgery

- weight loss surgery

- Roux-en Y procedure: a small pouch is created in the upper stomach and attached directly to the small intestine to bypass most of the stomach and duodenum

- lap banding procedure: a silicone band containing saline is placed around the upper stomach, placed under the skin and is easily inflated, allowing adjustment

- both procedures result in 40-50% weight loss within a year due to smaller/restricted stomach

Hormonal changes associated with gastric bypass surgery

- increased PYY levels

- decreasing ghrelin levels

- changes in key appetite regulating hormones might contribute to success

Basic reaction of combustion/respiration

- fuel + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O + heat

- P(i) + ADP ---> ATP

- usable energy stored as high energy phosphate bond

Energy storage summary

- most energy stored as triglycerides in our adipocytes

- carbohydrates stored as glycogen in liver and muscle

- protein stored in skeletal muscle mass

Absorptive state

- aka post-prandial state

- 3-6 hours (0-4?) following meal

- nutrients in bloodstream sustained from intestinal absorption

- excess = storage

- insulin increases

Post-absorptive state

- between meals

- energy stores must be mobilized to supply minimum primary fuel loads in the blood plasma

- glucagon increases

Energy distribution within the brain

- primary fuels cross the blood brain barrier under controlled conditions

- the brain uses a very large amount of glucose as a primary fuel to form ATP and do work

- the rest of the body adapts to feed the brain at all times

- the brain does not store any of the primary fuels at appreciable levels

- astrocytes partially control nutrient flow to neurons, make glycogen as an extra reservoir of fuel for local control of glucose levels, make ketone bodies and lactate as secondary fuels when there is a deficit of glucose/oxygen

Caffeine to generate energy

- caffeine = a stimulant

- drugs are either hormone receptor agonists/antagonists or direct enzyme modulators

- caffeine is both

- antagonist at cell-surface adenosine receptors

- inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase

Falling/staying asleep

- complex cycle of varying brain wave activity, involving astrocytes and neurons

- CCN is always active

- blood flow is down

- CSF channels in clean-up mode

- long term memory consolidation

Type 1 diabetes

- very quick, high spike in blood glucose after eating

- autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B-cells

- usually presents during childhood

- requires injections of exogenous insulin

- difficult to time and dose effectively with meals and activity

Type 2 diabetes

- smaller, slower spike in blood glucose levels after eating

- loss in insulin sensitivity

- usually presents in middle age, but is increasingly happening younger

- increased risk with obesity and lack of physical activity

- in early stage pancreas responds with extra insulin

- pancreatic B-cells eventually fail leading to insulin dependence


- small, quick spike in blood glucose levels after eating

- will cause increased urine volume and persistent thirst

- has gradual long term health impacts

- glucose crosslinks with protein

- gradual degeneration of cardiovascular and neural tissues


- blood glucose drops too low

- most serious cases caused by insulin overdose

- high risk, potentially lethal outcomes

Glucose regulation via insulin

When plasma glucose increases:

- B-cells in pancreas increase insulin secretion

- most cells increase glucose uptake

- liver and muscle increase glycogen synthesis and decrease glycogenolysis

- liver decreases gluconeogenesis

- adipose tissue increases lipogenesis

- plasma glucose decreases as a result

Glucose regulation via glucagon

When plasma glucose decreases:

- A-cells in pancreas increase glucagon secretion

- B-cells in pancreas decrease insulin secretion

- liver increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to increase plasma glucose

- adipose tissue increases lipolysis to increase plasma fatty acids so that tissues use fatty acids as an energy source rather than glucose

Substrate use during aerobic exercise

- more free fatty acids used by walking/prolonged low instensity exercise

- more muscle glycogen used by running/high intensity exercise

- prolonged, low intensity exercise beneficial for health

- high intensity exercise not necessary for good health

- medium intensity 'sport' has educational/psychological benefits in our society

Co-transport of sodium and glucose

- basis for sports drinks

- glucose included to provide energy

- sodium included to facilitate glucose absorption

- water 'follows' sodium so fluid absorption (hydration) will also be improved

- only helps for 2+ hours of cardio

Metabolic syndrome

- increased central adiposity (visceral fat)

- increased serum triglycerides

- low HDL cholesterol

- increased blood pressure

- elevated fasting glucose

- state of increased vulnerability for many other diseases/disorders

Compromised structure/function of the CCN in MetS

- disruptions in at least 3 homeostatic systems

- chronic inflammation

- hormonal alteration

- altered immune function

Dealing with MetS threat

- prevent, manage and reverse MetS with sustained individual lifestyle interventions

- change the obesogenic/sedentogenic/stressogenic/lonlinessogenic environment

- find hormonal/probiotic/drug/gene therapies that will manage/reverse those with a degree of MetS that go beyond the point of reasonable expectancy to return to normal

Change/variation in homeostasis

- pulses about a set point (variation decreases as more components/complexities are added)

- cycles daily/weekly/monthly/seasonally

- life-span trajectory (fetal, neonatal, childhood, elderly)

- variable life history of challenges, recording changes over time to serve as a chronological record of various stresses

- multiple simultaneous challenges will lead to variable additivity of the individual effects

- a given challenge has a variable effect on homeostatically controlled processes in each individual

Information flow in human thermoregulation

- hypothalamus: coordinating centre of set point

- input from temperature sensors (at least two)

- output to behaviour, metabolism, vascular smooth muscle, hair smooth muscle (at least four)

Homeostasis and stress

- stress is anything which is a challenge to homeostasis

- can come from internal or external environment

- difficult to apply a carefully measured challenge to homeostasis in a laboratory setting because domains of stress overlap

- real-life stresses are multi-dimensional

- impair performance

Reacting to stress

- all respond differently

- reactive scope

- set points have controlled/predictable variation (pulses/cycles) that can be altered by stresses

- range of healthy set points over various time scales

Homeostatic load

- total activity of the CCN to bring all homeostatic parameters back to the set point/within the predictive range

Reactive range

- the range of homeostatic disturbance your body can recover from

Reactive scope

- predictive range + reactive range

- total healthy scope an individual can react to

- outside this scope an individual may or may not recover

- can be acute or chronic

- can change temporarily causing disease/injury to be more likely to occur

- can also have permanent changes due to damage from previous stresses

- homeostatically controlled by CCN

Homeostatic overload

- above reactive scope limit

Homeostatic failure

- below reactive scope limit

Complex biological network

- system is not a machine/multiple machines with uniform pulses

- system is living and complex with non-random, chaos-like patterns

- network is scale-free as it involves multiple networks with varying scales

- hubs = control centres

- small nodes = sensors

- lines = "edges" which show connectivity, direction, speed, information flow, etc.

Physiological Complexity Analysis

- starts with continuously measured physiological processes and then analyzes the non-linear dynamics of the signal output over many time points

- very computational/mathematical

- separates and describes the complexity of the random and non-random factors within the background of the signal measured

- often related to an estimate of entropy

- important that the measurement of the complexity of the analytical signal appears to highly correlate with the complexity of the network being measured

Is complexity good or bad?

- complexity = good = optimized information flow

- but, harder to fix if something goes wrong

Physiological complexity and core body temperature

- decreases in critically ill

- decreases in premature infants

- decreases with age

- tested by swallowing thermoprobe

Physiological complexity and brain electrical activity

- decreases in vegetative state

- decreases with depth of general anesthesia

- decreases in the elderly with stimulation

- decreases with length of Alzheimer's disease

- tested by EEG/electrodes in cap

Physiological complexity and human movement/kinetics

- decreases in knee with ACL deficiency

- decreases in ankle joint kinematic measures in Parkinson's disease

- decreases in the elderly

- measured by LEDs on joints of body

Physiological complexity in heart rate variability

- decreases with aging

- decreases with smoking

- decreases in obese children

- decreases with shift work

- decreases with depression

- decreases during infection and inflammation

- decreases in paraplegia

- decreases in polluted area

- decreases with job stress

- decreases with PTSD

- decreases in adolescents with low physical activity levels

- tested by ECG

Optimal information flow in the CCN is critical for our ability to:

- closely control homeostatic set points

- adapt to challenges in homeostasis

- manage cumulative homeostatic load

- protect against homeostatic overload or failure

Diminished physiological complexity

- become more "machine-like"

- severed edges and damaged nodes

- traffic jams in information flow

- increase the vulnerability of an individual

Biological theories of aging

1) Use it or lose it: we use less of our mental and physical abilities as we age, and therefore lose these abilities over time

2) It's in our genes: genetic variation in 'longevity' genes may influence lifespan

3) Rate of Living Theory: the normal wear and tear of life, compounded by abuses to the system, results in accumulation of damage that is irreparable

Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and dementia

- reduced by years of schooling (dementia)

- reduced by cognitive activities (dementia)

- reduced by cognitive training (dementia)

- reduced by physical activity (dementia and Alzheimer's disease)


- increase in inactivity

- increase in fat mass

- decrease in GH secretion

- decrease in CNS input

- increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines

- decrease in oestrogen/androgen

- decrease in muscle quality

- decrease in muscle mass

- decrease in metabolic reserve

- weakness

- disability, morbidity, mortality

Identifying longevity genes

- using model systems (yeast, fruit flies, rodents, etc.) to knock out/in specific genes to examine their functionality- genotyping people of different ages

- longitudinal studies

Inducing mitochondrial mutations

- genetically engineered in rodents

- accelarates aging


- actively secreted by mitochondria to keep all the mitochondria in communication and coordination

Caloric restriction

- can optimize the healthy lifespan

- can decrease reproductive success

- requires human compliance but most will not voluntarily sustain a 30% calorie restriction


- possible anti-aging compound

- part of the stilbene family of polyphenols

- found only in wine in the Western diet

- found in grape skins

Inputs to health, disease, and aging

1) genetics

2) environment

3) lifestyle choices (physical activity, outlook on life, eating choices, connections with others, healthcare behaviors)

Blue Zones

- areas where people live longer

- Nicoya, Costa Rica (corns, beans, squash, hills, farms, corn beer)

- Ikaria, Greece (mediterranean diet, strong herbal teas, mountains, work/movement, herding sheep)

Breast Cancer

- Tumor in the breast

- women with high levels of both estrogen and progesterone receptors (high ER+ and PR+ status) often have the best chance of surviving

- Estrogen: hormone therapy

- Progesterone: will slow down estrogen fueled growth and division of these cells

- Genetic risk: depends


- Brain neuronal activity

- Glial cells: surrounds neurons and is insulator

- Mood: fatigue, guilt, hopelessness

- Suicide: symptom

- Serotonin: neurotransmitter that is a mood stabilizer

H. Pylori

- Bacteria: infects the stomach

- Stomach ulcers: symptom, most caused by H. pylori

- Stomach cancer: symptom

- Transmission: drinking unsanitary water, eating fecal matter

Type 2 Diabetes

- Insulin: beta cell

- Glucagon: alpha cell

- Pancreas: where insulin and glucagon is secreted

- Blood glucose homeostasis: body will adjust to maintain homeostasis

- glycosylated hemoglobin: is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration

IBD - Inflammatory Bowel Disease

- Large intestine: ulcers and sores on the intestine

- Crohn's disease: affects small and large intestine

- Ulcerative Colitis : continuous = inner lining of intestine

- Autoimmunity: wrongly attacks the biome in the GI tract

- Pain: super painful


- Bone: rubs on bone when osteoarthritis is really bad

- Cartilage: between joints as a lubricant but disintegrates

- Synovial fluid: affected negatively

- Joint pain: painful to move without cartilage

- Joint mobility: decreased


The craving for fluids

Caused by dehydration

E Coli

- Bacteria that lives in the digestive tract of humans and animals

- Many types of e coli, most are harmless

- Some strains can cause anemia, or kidney failure

- Some strains can cause urinary tract infections

- Transmitted by coming into contact with fecal matter or drinking/eating contaminated foods and drinks.


Condition that occurs when the levels of sodium in your blood are abnormally low. Sodium helps regulate the amount of water that is in and around your cells. When there is less sodium in your water, the water levels in your blood begins to rise and cells begin to swell and burst.


- Not enough water

- Impairs cognitive performance and can cause renal problems

- Reduces physical function

- Alters metabolism


process of absorbing water


The use of exercises in a pool as part of a treatment for conditions such as arthritis and partial paralysis

Water Balance

- The kidneys maintain water balance by controlling water concentration in blood plasma

- Kidneys control salt levels and excretion of urea

- Water is essential for the body

Water Quality and Safety

- Important to have safe drinking water for our health

- Water is the basic fuel and when combined with CO2 through the process of photosynthesis can create carbohydrates

- Consuming contaminated drinking water can lead to a variety of diseases