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94 Cards in this Set

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Five characteristics of living things

• highly organized (and made up of cells)


• regulate metabolic processes


• respond to stimuli


• reproduce/develop


• have the ability to evolve

Metabolism

The sum of all biological chemical processes

Photosynthesis

Plants use energy from the sun

Fission

Cells splitting to reproduce

Four ways responding to stimuli can help an organism

• escape predators


• capture prey


• optimize exposure to sunlight and find water


• attract a mate

Cellular respiration

Animals utilize chemical energy stored within food molecules

atoms

smallest unit of matter

molecule

unit of two/more atoms

cells

structural unit of all living things

tissues

group of cells with common function

organ

group of tissues working together

organ system

organs working together

organism

an individual

population

organisms of the same species

community

interacting populations

ecosystem

community + environment

biosphere

regions of Earth's crust

the four kingdoms of Eukarya

- Protista


- Plantae


- Fungi


- Animalia



What is the largest domain of life by sheer number?

bacteria

How many cells are in a bacteria?

one

Do bacteria have cell walls?

yes

two ways bacteria is important to humans

digestion and skin

Where do archaea live?

in extreme environments

How many cells do archaea have?

one

the six steps of the scientific method

1.) initial observation


2.) formulating a hypothesis


3.) designing an experiment


4.) performing experiment


5.) gathering data


6.) analyzing data

null hypothesis

no effect or relationship between groups

dependent variable

influenced by independent variable

independent variable

variable being tested or changed

controlled variable

variable being made consistent throughout experiment

two things that can be done with a hypothesis

supported or rejected

matter

anything that takes up space

What is all matter comprised of?

elements

What are all elements comprised of?

atoms

What are all atoms comprised of?

protons, neutrons, and electrons

chemistry

science that deals with compositions, properties, and reactions of matter

atoms

smallest complete unit of matter

elements

made up of one type of matter

What two things foes an atom contain?

a nucleus and a cloud of electrons

charge of protons

positive

What do protons give an atom?

its identity

charge of neutrons

neutral

What do neutrons play a role in?

atomic mass

charge of electrons

negative charge

What do electrons give an atom?

its personality

What is the number of protons equal to?

the number of electrons

atomic number

number of protons

isotope

same atomic number but different number of neutrons

atomic mass

number of protons plus number of neutrons

chemical bonds

allow you to link atoms together to create new compounds or molecules

three types of chemical bonds

- ionic


- covalent


-hydrogen

ionic bonds

electrons are transferred from one atom to another, creating a charged atom known as an ion

cation

positively charged ion

anion

negatively charged ion

covalent bonds

when electrons are shared between atoms; electrons orbit around both atoms, making them stable

two types of covalent bonds

polar and non-polar

non-polar covalent bonds

electrons are shared equally among the atoms

polar covalent bonds

electrons are shared unequally among atoms, creating a positive charge

hydrogen bonds

responsible for holding molecules together; form a bridge instead of electrons transferring

Which type of chemical bond is the weakest?

hydrogen bond

What gives water its unique properties?

hydrogen bonds

pH

the amount of ionized hydrogen from water in a solution

pH of water

7

acid

any substance that dissolved in water and increases the amount of hydrogen; pH below 7

base

any substance that yields hydroxide (OH-) when dissolved in water

What does an acid yield when in water?

hydrogen and an anion

What does a base yield when dissolved in water?

hydroxide (OH-) and a cation

alkaline

basic

What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?

simple sugars

What are the building blocks of proteins?

amino acids

What are most enzymes?

proteins
What are the building blocks of DNA and RNA?
nucleotides

four types of macromolecules

- proteins


- nucleic acids


- carbohydrates


- lipids

monomers

small components that assemble macromolecules

polymer

assembled chain of monomers

carbohydrates

make up structural framework of cells and play a critical role in energy storage; any molecule that contains the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio

What are simple carbs made of?

one or two monomers

What are complex carbs made of?

polymers

Are carbohydrates hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

hydrophilic

two examples of carbohydrates

starch and glycogen

What elements do lipids contain?

carbon, hydrogen, and low numbers of oxygen

three types of lipids

triglycerides (fats), phospholipids, steroids

What are triglycerides made up of?

glycerol and three fatty acid chains

What are phospholipids a major component in?

cell mambraines

What are phospholipids made of?

two fatty acid chains and phosphorus

What are steroids made up of?

four rings of carbon atoms

COOH+NH2

amino acid

four functions of steroids

receptors, antibodies, enzymes, and structural materials

enzymes

proteins that serve as catalysts in reactions

lock and key (induced fit)

a specific substrate is needed to fit in an enzyme

What three things make up amino acids?

carboxylic acid group, amino group, R group

nucleotides in DNA

T, A, G, C

nucleotides in RNA

U, A, G, C

hydrolysis reaction

when a water molecule is added to a substance

dehydration reaction

involved the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule