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14 Cards in this Set

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Define:

Genetic code
The correspondence between the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid and the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.

A series of three nucleotides (a codon) specifies an amino acid.
Define:

Codon
The sequence of three nucleotides in DNA or RNA that specifies a single amino acid.
Define:

Degenerate code
A code in which more than one "word" encodes the same entity.

As it relates to Biochem:
How more than one codon can be used for synthesizing an amino acid.
Define:

Triplet code
How combinations of 3 bases specifies an amino acid.
Define:

Reading frame
The grouping of nucleotides in sets of three whose sequence corresponds to a polypeptide sequence.
Define:

Anticodon
The sequence of three nucleotides in tRNA that recognizes an mRNA codon through complementary base pairing
Define:

Synonymous codons
Codons that specify the same amino acid
Define:

Stop codon
A sequence of three nucleotides that does not specify an amino acid but instead causes the termination of translation.

Also called a nonsense codon.
Define:

Acceptor stem
The base-paired region of a tRNA molecule that contains the 5' end and the 3' end, to which an amino acid is attached.
Define:

D arm
A conserved stem-loop structure in a tRNA molecule that usually contains the modified base dihydrouridine.
Define:

Anticodon arm
The conserved stem-loop structure in a tRNA molecule that includes the anticodon.
Define:

TψC arm
A conserved stem-loop structure in a tRNA molecule that usually contains the sequence TψC, where ψ is pseudouridine.
Define:

aaRS
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

An enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent esterification of an amino acid to a tRNA with high specificity for the amino acid and the tRNA molecule.
Define:

aa-tRNA
Aminoacyl-tRNA

The covalent ester complex between an "activated" amino acid and a tRNA molecule.