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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does it mean when it's said that the genetic code is "degenerate"?
More than 1 codon can code for an amino acid.
Summarize the genetic code in 7 characteristics.
1) Triplet code

2) Degenerate

3) AUG is start codon

4) Non-overlapping

5) Arrangement in the table is not random

6) 3 stop codons {UAA, UAG, UGA}

7) Code is almost universal.
What does it mean when it's said that the genetic code is "overlapping"?
Only 3 codons are read at a time.


The sequence of 3 codons are read {AGA, GGU, GCU}

{AGA, GAG, AGG, etc...}
A codon is represented by a sequence of _____ bases.
What are the 3 types of RNA involved in translation, and what are their functions?
mRNA (messenger) - Moves information from the nucleus to cytoplasm.

tRNA (transfer/decoder) - Matches codons to AA's

rRNA (ribosomal/catalyst) - Catalyzes peptide bond formation.
Describe 4 general characteristics of the base sequence of tRNA.
1) ~76 nucleotides (between 50-100)

2) many modified bases

3) 15 invariant positions

4) 8 semi-invariant positions
Describe 6 characteristics of tRNA secondary structure.
Described from 5' end ---> 3' end
bp = base pair
nt = nucleotide

1) 5' terminal phosphate group

2) 7 bp stem

3) D-Arm: 3-4 bp stem, 5-7 nt loop

4) Anticodon Arm: 5 bp stem and loop

5) TΨC Arm: 5 bp stem and loop

...7 bp stem

6) 3' CCA with free -OH
tRNA tertiary structure is shaped like what letter?
An L.

Name the product of the reaction:

Amino Acid + ATP ⇌ ?

i.e. aminoacyl-AMP
Name the product of the reaction:

AMinoacyl-AMP + tRNA ⇌ ?
Aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP
The non-abbreviated name of aatRNA is:
The majority of tRNA identity elements are found on the _____ and the _____.


Ribosomes are composed of _____ and _____.

What are their average percentages?
RNA (66%)

protein (34%)
What are 5 general characteristics of translation?
1) Ribosomes have 3 tRNA binding sites: E, P, A

2) Ppt synthesis proceeds from N-terminus to C-terminus
- The COOH of the growing chain is linked to the NH₂ of the incoming AA.

3) Chain elongation transfers frowing chain (P-site) to incoming aa-tRNA (A-site)

4) Ribosomes read the mRNA from 5' to 3'

5) Translation takes place on polysomes.
The initiation complex forms at an AUG following a _____-_____ _____.
Shine-Delgano Sequence (SDS)
Shine-Delgano Sequence is recognized by _____ _____.
...16S RNA.
Describe the 3 steps of chain-elongation:
1) Decoding - tRNA binding to A site

2) Transpeptidation - Peptide bond formation

3) P and A tRNA's are moved to E and P sites.
Describe the 5 steps of termination.
1) RF 1 or 2 binds to stop codon in A site

2) Transfer of ppt. to H₂O.

3) RF 3-GTP binds, GTP hydrolysis, release of RF 1 or 2

4) RRF and EF-F-GTP bind, release RF-3-GDP

5) GTP hydrolysis, movement of tRNA to E-site, factors to P-site and release of tRNA, mRNA and factors.